4th International Conference on Scanning Probe Microscopy on Soft and Polymer Materials

We are proud to reveal that ChemComm will be sponsoring the 4th International Conference on Scanning Probe Microscopy on Soft and Polymeric Materials (SPMonSPM). This symposium will be held on the 20 – 24 August in Leuven (Belgium) and will cover research on SPM applied to soft matter, polymeric materials and biological systems. The conference will include a short course, plenary lectures, a range of talks and dedicated poster sessions on topics across this field.

 

Scanning Probe Microscopy on Soft and Polymeric Materials

 

Registration is currently open and the early bird registration deadline is the 1st May!

 

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Scanning probe frontiers in molecular 2D-architecture world

Scanning probe frontiers in molecular 2D-architecture world

ChemComm is pleased to announce a themed collection in conjunction with the upcoming symposium on Scanning probe frontiers in molecular 2D-architecture world. This collection is being Guest Edited by Professors Xavier Bouju, Frederic Cherioux, Steven De Feyter and Alain Rochefort, co-organisers of the symposium. Both the conference and themed issue will focus on scanning probe microscopy, both experimental and theoretical work, which we hope will encourage and promote the research in this area.

For more details on the conference and the full programme follow this link.

Researchers wishing to contribute to the ChemComm collection should contact the Editorial Office in the first instance.

Hot topics to be covered in the symposium

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Philip Power at 65: an icon of organometallic chemistry

Professor Philip P. Power (University of California, Davis) turned 65 in April 2018 and in honour of this anniversary and his immense influence on the field of organometallic chemistry we’re pleased to introduce a new cross-journal themed collection

Guest edited by Roland C. Fischer, Michael S. Hill, and David J. Liptrot the collection brings together 27 of Professor Power’s key RSC papers with specially commissioned work for Dalton Transactions and Chem. Commun. by over 45 by his coworkers and protégés.

Read the editorial, in which the guest editors give an overview of Professor Power’s career and highlight some of his contributions to the study of low coordinate systems, multiple bonding, small molecule activation, and London dispersion forces, or read on to check out some of the many hot articles inspired by his work.

 

1,3,2-Diazaborole-derived carbene complexes of boron

Dalton Trans., 2018,47, 41-44
10.1039/C7DT04079B

 

1,3,2-Diazaborole-derived carbene complexes of boron were synthesized via 1,2-hydrogen migration.

 

 

A snapshot of inorganic Janovsky complex analogues featuring a nucleophilic boron center

 

Chem. Commun., 2017,53, 12734-12737
10.1039/C7CC07616A

The addition of phenyl lithium (PhLi) to an aromatic 1,3,2,5-diazadiborinine (1) afforded isolable ionic species 2, which can be deemed as an inorganic analogue of a Janovsky complex.

 

Neutral two-dimensional organometallic–organic hybrid polymers based on pentaphosphaferrocene, bipyridyl linkers and CuCl

Dalton Trans., 2018,47, 1014-1017
10.1039/C7DT04286H
 

The reaction of the Pn ligand complex [Cp*Fe(η5-P5)] (1: Cp* = η5-C5Me5) with CuCl in the presence of 4,4′-bipyridine or 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene leads to the formation of three unprecedented neutral 2D organometallic–organic hybrid networks.

 

 

C–H and H–H activation at a di-titanium centre

 

Chem. Commun., 2017,53, 13117-13120
10.1039/C7CC07726B

An NHC promotes intramolecular C–H activation in bis(pentalene)dititanium; this process is reversed by the addition of hydrogen, forming a dihydride.

 

Divergent reactivity of nucleophilic 1-bora-7a-azaindenide anions

Dalton Trans., 2018,47, 734-741
10.1039/C7DT04350C
 

The reactions of 1-bora-7a-azaindenide anions, prepared in moderate to excellent yields by reduction of the appropriate 1-bora-7a-azaindenyl chlorides with KC8 in THF, with alkyl halides and carbon dioxide were studied.

 

 

Carbodiimides as catalysts for the reduction of a cadmium hydride complex

 

Chem. Commun., 2018,54, 460-462
10.1039/C7CC08393A

A rare terminal cadmium hydride complex has been synthesised. Reduction to the cadmium(I) dimer complex was achieved upon treatment with carbodiimides.

All articles in this collection will be free to access until the 19th of June. 

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In-Situ Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Revealed the Charge Storage Behavior of Activated Carbon

Recently in Chem. Commun., Wang et al. from University of Manchester and Liverpool John Moores University, U.K. demonstrated that in-situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was a powerful tool to study the charge storage mechanism of activated carbon.

Activated carbon is a type of microporous carbon used for electrodes of supercapacitors (a family of charge-storage devices similar to batteries). Conventional electrochemical testing techniques (e.g. cyclic voltammetry) are able to evaluate the overall performance of electrode materials but are unable to reveal the charge storage mechanism at the atomic level. Understanding the charge storage mechanism is crucial to guide the design and synthesis of electrode materials with improved performance. During the past decade, the development of numerous in-situ probing techniques has allowed materials researchers to explore the microscopic charge-discharge behaviour of supercapacitor electrodes.

In the published paper, in-situ EPR spectroscopy was used to study the electrochemical properties of activated carbon under different external potentials. EPR is very sensitive to electron spins originating from unpaired electrons that are generated upon charging or discharging electrode materials. This characteristic makes EPR a suitable technique for in-situ studies. To carry out the experiments, the authors designed and constructed a capillary three-electrode testing cell (Figure 1a). This cell was placed in an EPR spectrometer and its activated carbon electrode was connected to an external power source (to apply external potentials to the activated carbon electrode). The authors collected the spectra of the activated carbon electrode at selected applied potentials, an example of which is shown in Figure 1b.

Analysis of the obtained spectra offered important information about how the surface of activated carbon changed at different potentials. Specifically, the authors deconvoluted the signal into two components: the narrow signal and the broad signal corresponding to the blue and red curves in Figure 1b, respectively. The peak intensity of the narrow signal increased drastically when charging the electrode, but remained almost unchanged when altering the testing temperature. This observation suggests that the origin of the narrow peaks was the surface-localized electrons. These localized electrons were likely from the oxidized products (i.e. radicals) of carboxylate and alkoxide groups on the surface of the activated carbon, evolved during the charging process. The broad signal was ascribed to electrons located on aromatic units (e.g. graphene domains) and its intensity was found to be proportional to the number of ions electrically adsorbed on the activated carbon surface.

Figure 1. (a) The structure of the self-built capillary three-electrode cell: CE – counter electrode (Pt wire); RE – reference electrode (Ag/AgCl); WE – working electrode (activated carbon). (b) A typical EPR signal (black) that can be deconvoluted into narrow peaks (blue) and broad peaks (red).

This work highlights EPR spectroscopy as a novel tool for in-situ investigation of the charge-storage mechanism of carbon-based supercapacitor electrodes, and could be potentially extended to study other types of materials. The availability of diverse in-situ techniques is expected to provide more in-depth fundamental understanding that will guide researchers to rationally develop electrodes with optimized performance.

 

To find out more please read:

In-Situ Electrochemical Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as A Tool to Probe Electric Double Layer Capacitance

Bin Wang, Alistair J. Fielding and Robert A. W. Dryfe

Chem. Commun. 2018, DOI: 10.1039/c8cc00450a

About the blogger:

Tianyu Liu obtained his Ph.D. (2017) in Physical Chemistry from University of California, Santa Cruz in United States. He is passionate about scientific communication to introduce cutting-edge research to both the general public and scientists with diverse research expertise. He is an online blog writer for Chem. Commun. and Chem. Sci. More information about him can be found at http://liutianyuresearch.weebly.com/.

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Synthesis of Maleimide Dyes with Colourful Fluorescent Emissions

A group of researchers based at universities spanning the UK, China and Spain have synthesised a diverse library of fluorescent maleimide dyes with the aim of developing a structure-function relationship, relating substituent effects to the optical properties of such molecules. This work is not only important to build upon fundamental understanding of the fluorescence mechanism, but to develop knowledge that may be used to guide the synthesis of organic fluorophores which demand particular optical properties.

Organic fluorescent molecules are used as tools in many areas such as forensics, genetic analysis, DNA sequencing and biotechnology. Maleimides are commonly used as fluorescent labels for proteins, as they can couple with the thiol groups of cysteine residues. They are suited to this purpose as they are stable, easily functionalised, give strong emissions and do not perturb the protein structure to a large extent.

Molecules fluoresce upon absorption of UV or visible light, elevating an electron from a ground state orbital to a higher-energy orbital and resulting in a singlet excited state. Relaxation to the ground state occurs rapidly (~ 10 ns) with concomitant emission of a photon – this is what we observe as ‘fluorescence’. The emitted photon almost always has a longer wavelength than the absorbed light, a phenomenon known as the ‘Stokes shift’.

 

Structures of selected aminohalomaleimides and alkoxyhalomaleimides

Structures of selected amino-halo-maleimides and alkoxy-halo-maleimides synthesised for the study

With three dihalomaleimide precursers in hand (Cl, Br and I) the researchers assembled a library of amino-halo-maleimides, amino-alkoxy-maleimides, and amino-thio-maleimides. They varied the R groups bound to the N, O and S heteroatoms to include aliphatic, phenyl and benzyl examples.

The optical properties of the amino-halo-maleimides in diethyl ether were examined and the emission wavelengths were measured to be 461-487 nm, giving green-blue fluorescence. The fluorescence quantum yields, a measure of the quantity of emitted photons compared to absorbed photons and an indication of emission brightness, decreased with the electronegativity of the halide (Cl: 37%, Br: 30%, I: 8%). Like many fluorescent molecules in solution the compounds exhibited solvafluorochromism: when the polarity of the solvent alters the optical properties. In protic solvents (methanol and water) the fluorescence quantum yields decreased to below 1% and the emission wavelengths increased by 73-109 nm. On the other hand, in non-polar solvents (cyclohexane) the fluorescence quantum yield increased, up to 56% for the chloro analogue.

a) The UV and emission spectra of fluorescent maleimides bearing amino (2a-c) and alkoxy (3a, 3b) substituents. b) The quantum yields of selected amino and alkoxymaleimides. c) The solvafluorochromism effect for three aminomaleimides (2a-c) in increasingly non-polar solvents.

a) The UV and emission spectra of fluorescent maleimides bearing amino (2a-c) and alkoxy (3a, 3b) substituents. b) The quantum yields of selected amino and alkoxymaleimides. c) The solvafluorochromism effect for three maleimides (2a-c) in various solvents.

Compared to their amino-substituted counterparts, alkoxy-halo-maleimides have lower quantum yields (reduction of 20-25%), indicating the increased electron-donating capacity of the amine substituent is important for fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, the slight decrease in the emission wavelengths of alkoxy-halo-maleimides (458-465 nm) gives them blue fluorescent emissions. Amino-thio-maleimides, with greater electron-donating capacity than both the amino and alkoxy analogues, have increased emission wavelengths (526-564 nm), thus yellow fluorescent emissions.

This study is a worthwhile read for anyone who uses fluorescent molecules in their work, those wishing to understand a little more about the practical principles of fluorescence and all those curious minds who like to form their own hypotheses.

To find out more please read:

Rational design of substituted maleimide dyes with tunable fluorescence and solvafluorochromism

Yujie Xie, Jonathan T. Husband, Miquel Torrent-Sucarrat, Huan Yang, Weisheng Liu, Rachel K. O’Reilly.
Chem. Commun., 2018, 54, 3339 – 3342
DOI: 10.1039/C8CC00772A

About the author:

Zoë Hearne is a PhD candidate in chemistry at McGill University in Montréal, Canada, under the supervision of Professor Chao-Jun Li. She hails from Canberra, Australia, where she completed her undergraduate degree. Her current research focuses on transition metal catalysis to effect novel transformations, and out of the lab she is an enthusiastic chemistry tutor and science communicator.

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HOT ChemComm articles for March

All of the referee-recommended articles below are free to access until 4th May 2018

An umpolung of Lewis acidity/basicity at nitrogen by deprotonation of a cyclic (amino)(aryl)nitrenium cation
Jiliang Zhou, Liu Leo Liu, Levy L. Cao and Douglas W. Stephan
Chem. Commun., 2018, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C8CC01331D, Communication

___________________________________________

Aqueous immiscible layered double hydroxides: synthesis, characterisation and molecular dynamics simulation
Kanittika Ruengkajorn, Valentina Erastova, Jean-Charles Buffet, H. Chris Greenwell and Dermot O’Hare
Chem. Commun., 2018, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C8CC00528A, Communication

___________________________________________

Ultrasmall Ru2P nanoparticles on graphene: a highly efficient hydrogen evolution reaction electrocatalyst in both acidic and alkaline media
Tingting Liu, Shuo Wang, Qiuju Zhang, Liang Chen, Weihua Hu and Chang Ming Li
Chem. Commun., 2018,54, 3343-3346
DOI: 10.1039/C8CC01166D, Communication

___________________________________________

Catalytically active nanorotor reversibly self-assembled by chemical signaling within an eight-component network
Abir Goswami, Susnata Pramanik and Michael Schmittel
Chem. Commun., 2018, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C8CC01496E, Communication

___________________________________________

Impact of partial interpenetration in a hybrid ultramicroporous material on C2H2/C2H4 separation performance
Daniel O’Nolan, David G. Madden, Amrit Kumar, Kai-Jie Chen, Tony Pham, Katherine A. Forrest, Ewa Patyk-Kazmierczak, Qing-Yuan Yang, Claire A. Murray, Chiu C. Tang, Brian Space and Michael J. Zaworotko
Chem. Commun., 2018,54, 3488-3491
DOI: 10.1039/C8CC01627E, Communication

___________________________________________

On the nature of organic and inorganic centers that bifurcate electrons, coupling exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions
John W. Peters, David N. Beratan, Gerrit J. Schut and Michael W. W. Adams
Chem. Commun., 2018, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C8CC01530A, Feature Article

 

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Synthesis of Oxazolines with a Triple Activation Twist

A group of researchers based in Valencia, Spain, have developed an enantio- and diastereoselective method to synthesize oxazolines, using a combination of silver and an organocatalyst that is only one degree of separation away from a classic British cocktail (to get that one, you might have to keep reading). This method complements the current literature by employing unactivated ketone substrates to prepare products with two adjacent chiral centres, one of which is quaternary.

Oxazolines are a versatile functional group, found in synthetic precursors and functional molecules and materials. They are a common structural feature in many natural products and in medicinal chemistry they are incorporated into synthetic drug candidates as bioisosteres of other functional groups, such as thiazoles and imidazoles. Oxazolines can also be used to prepare poly(2-alkyl/aryl-oxazoline) polymers, which have utility in biomedical fields to prepare hydrogels, nanoparticles for drug delivery and imaging, and polymer-protein conjugates. In an organic synthesis laboratory oxazolines are encountered as ligands in asymmetric catalysis, such as the bis(oxazoline) ‘BOX’ family of compounds.

Synthesis of oxazolines from ketones and isocyanaoacetate esters via a formal [3+2] cycloaddition reaction catalysed by a multicatalytic system of silver and a dihydroquinine squaramide organocatalyst

Synthesis of oxazolines from ketones and isocyanaoacetate esters via a formal [3+2] cycloaddition reaction.

The researchers optimised the reaction with acetophenone and tert-butyl isocyanoacetate, and found that Ag2O (2.5 mol%) and a dihydroquinine squaramide organocatalyst (5 mol%) promoted the reaction to obtain a quantitative yield of the cis-oxazoline (80:20 cis/trans) in 24 hours with excellent enantiomeric excess (99/93% e.e.). The researchers tested the reaction scope and found that acetophenone derivatives substituted with electron-withdrawing and donating groups (NO2, Cl, Br, Me) gave the cis-oxazoline products in reliable yields (60 – 99%), fair to good diastereoselectivity (56:44 – 95:5 cis/trans) and excellent enantioselectivities (91 – 99% e.e.). Other examples tested included cyclohexanone, 2-acetylthiophene, deoxybenzoin and acetone as well as aliphatic ketones with a combination of methyl, isopropyl and cyclopropyl groups (63-99% yield, 45:55 – 98:2 cis/trans, 56 – 98% e.e.).

Diagram showing the triple activation of the substrates achieved using a dihydroquinone squaramide organocatalyst combined with a silver lewis acid.

Diagram showing the triple activation of substrates using a dihydroquinine squaramide organocatalyst combined with a silver lewis acid.

The dihydroquinine squaramide organocatalyst used is a composite structure comprising a rigid cyclobutendione ‘squaramide’ and a reduced quinine analogue. The former makes strong hydrogen bonds with carbonyl derivatives while the latter confers chirality on the catalyst and has a Brønsted basic quinuclidine moiety. Quinine is an alkaloid isolated from the cinchona plant, and is the same stuff in anti-malarial tonic that is better washed down with a measure of gin. The reaction proceeds via silver-coordination to the terminal carbon of the isocyanate, accelerating deprotonation of the alpha protons by the quinuclidine base and forming a nucleophilic enoate. The electrophilicity of the ketone is enhanced by the formation of two hydrogen bonds with the N-H bonds of the squaramide, shaping a doubly activated system which rapidly undergoes a formal [3+2] cycloaddition to give the products.

At first glance this seems to be a simple and straightforward transformation, but in reality the authors have succeeded in optimising a reaction for unactivated substrates which has stereocontrol over two chiral centres, one of which is quaternary. Furthermore, the reaction uses a combination of two catalysts reacting via three modes of activation.

To find out more please read:

Enantioselective synthesis of chiral oxazolines from unactivated ketones and isocyanoacetate esters by synergistic silver/organocatalysis

Pablo Martínez-Pardo, Gonzalo Blay, M. Carmen Muñoz, José R. Pedro, Amparo Sanz-Marco and Carlos Vila.
Chem. Commun., 2018, 54, 2862 – 2865
DOI: 10.1039/c8cc00856f

About the author:

Zoë Hearne is a PhD candidate in chemistry at McGill University in Montréal, Canada, under the supervision of Professor Chao-Jun Li. She hails from Canberra, Australia, where she completed her undergraduate degree. Her current research focuses on transition metal catalysis to effect novel transformations, and out of the lab she is an enthusiastic chemistry tutor and science communicator.

 

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An Industrial Revolution on the Nanoscale

“What are the possibilities of small but movable machines? They may or may not be useful, but they surely would be fun to make”. In December 1959 Richard Feynman addressed the annual meeting of the American Physical Society at Caltech with a talk entitled ‘There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom’, imploring the scientific community to start thinking small, like ‘entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin’ kind of small. Many quote this lecture as when the notion of nanomachines first entered the scientific sphere – with talk of miniature cars, injectable molecular ‘surgeons’ and machines that place atoms side by side to synthesize any molecule imaginable. The lecture reads like the description of the futuristic setting in ‘Back to the Future’, an exploration of possibilities at a time when we fundamentally lacked the tools to make them a reality.

As in ‘Back to the Future’, which predated yet predicted the emergence of mobile-banking technology, video calling and personal drones, Richard Feynman’s plea for scientists to prepare molecular-scale machines has also become a reality, and for their successes in this field Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir Fraser Stoddart and Ben Feringa were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2016.

A group of researchers based in London and Singapore have written a feature article introducing both the foundational work in this field and state-of-the-art examples. Nanomachines are single molecules or molecular assemblies on the nanoscale (this review defines a 1 – 100 nm scope) that have the ability to perform ‘useful work’ upon application of an external energy source. To extract work (often in the form of controlled mechanical movement) molecular machines are designed to operate at a thermodynamically far-from-equilibrium state, maintained by an energy input, with movement occurring as the system relaxes towards equilibrium. At the synthetic level, molecules are designed with components which have restricted translational and rotational movements with respect to each other, and the ability to control these movements is key to obtaining the desired function.

A catalytically active rotaxane synthesised by Nolte and co-workers acts as a tiny epoxidising machine , moving along a polybutadiene polymer

The catalytically active rotaxane synthesised by Nolte and co-workers acts as a tiny epoxidising machine, moving along a polybutadiene polymer

One of the first advances towards the synthesis of nanomachines was by the research group of Jean-Pierre Sauvage, who achieved the templated synthesis of catenanes; structures with two circular molecules that are interlocked like two links in a chain. It was subsequently shown that a catenane motor could be prepared, with one ring rotating with respect to the other in a controlled manner. Fraser Stoddart further contributed to the field with ‘rotaxanes’, composite molecules comprising a ring threaded onto an axle. Nanomachines based on rotaxanes have been developed and include switches, shuttles and ‘molecular elevators’. A state-of-the-art example of a catalytically active rotaxane synthesised by Nolte and co-workers in 2003 demonstrates the potential of nanomachines to revolutionise organic synthesis. The rotaxane is constructed with a magnesium-bound porphyrin, which threads onto a polybutadiene polymer (300 kDa, 98% cis) and catalyses the epoxidation of the double bonds (turnover number: 140, cis/trans ratio of the polyepoxide: 1:4).

Ben Feringa's electric nano-car, a single molecule with four fluorene 'wheels' capable of driving across a copper surface

Ben Feringa’s electric nano-car, a single molecule with four fluorene ‘wheels’ capable of driving across a copper surface

In 2011 Ben Feringa and co-workers synthesized the worlds tiniest electric car using the same design principles they had used to create a spinning motor in 1999. The car is a single molecule with the ability to propel itself across a crystalline copper surface upon activation by a voltage pulse, with 10 pulses moving the car 6 nm across the surface. The car itself is comprised of a central diyne strut bonded at each end to carbazole ‘axles’. Each axle is bound through alkenes to two fluorene ‘wheels’. The key design elements are the alkenes and two chiral methyl substituents on each axle which forces each wheel to twist out of the plane. For one wheel rotation: an electronic excitation induces transcis isomerisation of the alkene causing a quarter turn of the wheel such that it sits adjacent to the methyl group. Next, a vibrational excitation induces helical inversion, allowing the wheel to push past the methyl group another quarter turn. Another isomerisation and helical inversion completes a full rotation. Research achievements like these demonstrate mechanical work on the nanoscale, with the vision of achieving movement on the macroscale via synchronised motion.

These examples represent a small subset of those discussed in the feature article review, which not only spans the current scope of molecular-scale machines, but reviews the design principles guiding their development and the possibilities nanomachines represent in the future of scientific research.

To find out more please read: 

Artificial molecular and nanostructures for advanced nanomachinery

Elizabeth Ellis, Suresh Moorthy, Weng-I Katherine Chio and Tung-Chun Lee.
Chem. Commun., 2018, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/c7cc09133h

About the author:

Zoë Hearne is a PhD candidate in chemistry at McGill University in Montréal, Canada, under the supervision of Professor Chao-Jun Li. She hails from Canberra, Australia, where she completed her undergraduate degree. Her current research focuses on transition metal catalysis to effect novel transformations, and out of the lab she is an enthusiastic chemistry tutor and science communicator.

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Buckyball’s Hydrogen Spillover Effect at Ambient Temperature Observed Experimentally for the First Time

A group of scientists from Tohoku University, Japan experimentally demonstrated the hydrogen spillover effect of buckyball (a.k.a. fullerene or C60). They achieved this breakthrough using mass spectroscopy, and their findings were published recently in Chem. Commun.

Certain transition metal nanoparticles (e.g. Ru, Pt and Ni) can capture hydrogen molecules. The capture process generally involves three sequential steps. Firstly, hydrogen molecules split into hydrogen atoms on the metal surface. Secondly, the yielded hydrogen atoms migrate on the surface towards substrates under the metal nanoparticles and, finally, these atoms fix onto the substrates. The second step is termed the “spillover effect” (Figure 1a). Previous studies predicted that curved graphene sheets could enhance the hydrogen spillover effect at ambient temperatures, but solid experimental evidence has remained inadequate.

To gather evidence for this prediction, Nishihara et al. studied the material buckyball, a spherical carbon nanosphere that represents an extremely curved graphene sheet. The researchers selected ketjenblack (KB), a type of porous carbon sheet, as the substrate, and deposited Pt nanoparticles (1-3 nm in diameter) and buckyball molecules onto it (Figure 1b). They found that the Pt and buckyball-decorated KB stored a higher amount of hydrogen compared to the Pt-loaded KB. This observation indirectly confirmed the previous prediction, as hydrogen storage capacity may be improved by enhancing the spillover effect.

Figure 1. (a) A schematic illustration showing how a hydrogen molecule is split on Pt surface [process (1)] followed by the spillover effect [processes (2) and (2′)]. (b) A schematic illustration of the structure of Pt and buckyball-decorated KB. The inset panel displays two forms of hydrogen bound to the composite: the physically adsorbed di-hydrogen molecules, and the spillover hydrogen atoms anchored on the KB substrate and buckyballs.

 

The authors then sought time-of-flight mass spectroscopy to obtain more evidence. This spectroscopic technique is capable of identifying molecules with different mass to charge ratios (m/z). As shown in Figure 2, after treating the buckyball and Pt-loaded KB with deuterium molecules (D2), the spectrum (red) exhibited two additional peaks with m/z of ~723.5 and ~724.5 (highlighted by arrows in the figure) compared to those of the buckyball reference (black) and the buckyball and Pt-loaded KB prior to D2 dosage (blue). The authors ascribed these two new peaks to single D atom-adsorbed buckyballs with different amounts of carbon isotopes (12C and 13C). The presence of the two new peaks clearly showed that buckyballs could host hydrogen atoms to enhance the spillover effect. In addition, upon exposing the D-containing buckballs to air, both of the newly-merged peaks disappeared, suggesting that D atom adsorption was reversible.

Figure 2. The time-of-flight mass spectroscopy spectra of buckyball (black), Pt and buckyball-decorated KB before (blue) and after (red) exposure to D2, and after exposure to air (green). Pictures on the right show the molecular structure of a buckyball molecule and two deuterium-incorporated buckyball molecules (with different number of 13C isotope). Deuterium is used to avoid the interference from the 13C isotope.

This work could serve as a reference for future studies of the spillover effect induced by buckyballs interacting with other metal nanoparticles. The increasing availability of in-depth fundamental insight could refine our understanding of ambient-temperature hydrogen storage.

To find out more please read:

Enhanced Hydrogen Spillover to Fullerene at Ambient Temperature

Hirotomo Nishihara, Tomoya Simura and Takashi Kyotani

Chem. Commun. 2018, DOI: 10.1039/c8cc00265g

About the blogger:

Tianyu Liu obtained his Ph.D. (2017) in Physical Chemistry from University of California, Santa Cruz in United States. He is passionate about scientific communication to introduce cutting-edge research to both the general public and scientists with diverse research expertise. He is a blog writer for Chem. Commun. and Chem. Sci. More information about him can be found at http://liutianyuresearch.weebly.com/.

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Outstanding Reviewers for Chemical Communications in 2017

We would like to highlight the Outstanding Reviewers for Chemical Communications in 2017, as selected by the editorial team, for their significant contribution to the journal. The reviewers have been chosen based on the number, timeliness and quality of the reports completed over the last 12 months.

We would like to say a big thank you to those individuals listed here as well as to all of the reviewers that have supported the journal. Each Outstanding Reviewer will receive a certificate to give recognition for their significant contribution.

Professor Koji Hirano, Osaka University, ORCID: 0000-0001-9752-1985
Professor Marcel Hollenstein, Institut Pasteur, ORCID: 0000-0003-0263-9206
Professor Yu Sherry Jiang, Harvard Medical School
Professor Joohoon Kim, Kyung Hee University, ORCID: 0000-0003-1481-2440
Dr Matthew Lloyd, University of Bath, ORCID: 0000-0002-4821-4361
Professor Arpad Molnar, University of Szeged, ORCID: 0000-0001-9191-450X
Professor David Nelson, University of Strathclyde, ORCID: 0000-0002-9461-5182
Professor Kyungsoo Oh, Chung-Ang University, ORCID: 0000-0002-4566-6573
Professor Carlos del Pozo, University of Valencia, ORCID: 0000-0002-0947-5999
Professor Jin Xie, Nanjing University, ORCID: 0000-0003-2600-6139

We would also like to thank the Chemical Communications Board and the general chemical sciences community for their continued support of the journal, as authors, reviewers and readers.

If you would like to become a reviewer for our journal, just email us with details of your research interests and an up-to-date CV or résumé.  You can find more details in our author and reviewer resource centre.

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