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Green Chemistry Issue 2 now online!

Green Chemistry issue 2, 2013, is now available to read online.

Green Chemistry, issue 2, 2013 - front coverThis issue features work by Enrique Herrero Acero, Georg Guebitz and co-workers from Austria who report the replacement of heavy-metal catalysts from paints.  Alkyd resins are polyesters containing unsaturated fatty acids which are used as binding agents in paints and coatings.  The chemical drying of these resins is based on crossing-linking the unsaturated fatty acid moieties using heavy-metal catalysts.  However, these catalysts have been proven to be carcinogenic and so research has been focused on finding less toxic and environmentally friendly alternatives.  The team here have developed a laccase-mediator system which not only performs well in aqueous media, but also in solid film.

Banning toxic heavy-metal catalysts from paints: enzymatic cross-linking of alkyd resins, Katrin J. Greimel, Veronika Perz, Klaus Koren, Roland Feola, Armin Temel, Christian Sohar, Enrique Herrero Acero, Ingo Klimant and Georg M. Guebitz, Green Chem., 2013, 15, 381-388

Green Chemistry, issue 2, 2013 - inside front coverThe inside front cover features work by Michael Meier and Maulidan Firdaus who have derived renewable polyamides and polyurethanes from limonene.  Addition of cysteamine hydrochloride to (R)-(+)- and (S)-(+)-limonene presented a versatile method to produce functionalised renewable monomers for polyamide and polyurethane synthesis.  Through various combinations, fatty acid, limonene and Nylon 6,6 copolymers were prepared. Diamines derived from limonene were efficiently transformed into dicarbamates viaa phosgene-free route, and linear renewable polyurethanes, with molecular weights of up to 12.6 kDa, were obtained through an isocyanate-free route.  The structure-thermal property relationships of these compounds were also studied.

Renewable polyamides and polyurethanes derived from limonene, Maulidan Firdaus and Michael A. R. Meier, Green Chem., 2013, 15, 370-380

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Environmentally friendly alternative to toxic heavy metals in paint

Austrian scientists have shown that an environmentally friendly enzyme, laccase, can be used to replace toxic drying agents in paint.

Currently, water-based paints contain heavy metals that dry the alkyd (polyester) resin films that are used as binding agents by catalysing the oxidative cross-linking of unsaturated fatty acid moieties in the films. Heavy metals are often toxic, and the commonly used cobalt-based catalysts have recently proved to be carcinogenic, and so alternative materials are being sought.

Laccase on painted background

An enzyme system could be an environmentally friendly alternative to toxic heavy metal drying agents in paints

Enrique Herrero Acero at the Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology, Graz, and colleagues, decided to replace the heavy metal catalysts with a laccase enzyme–mediator-based, non-toxic biocatalyst. Laccases, found in fungi, bacteria and plants, can catalyse the oxidation of mainly phenolic substances, and are already used in other fields, including the food, pulp and paper, and textile industries.

Read the full article in Chemistry World

Read the original article online:
Banning toxic heavy-metal catalysts from paints: enzymatic cross-linking of alkyd resins
Katrin J. Greimel, Veronika Perz, Klaus Koren, Roland Feola, Armin Temel, Christian Sohar, Enrique Herrero Acero, Ingo Klimant and Georg M. Guebitz
Green Chem., 2013, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C2GC36666E

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Top 10 cited review articles in 2012

A green chemistry coverAs the year draws to a close, here is a list of the top 10 cited review articles in Green Chemistry in 2012 – all free to access until the end of January 2013!

Technology development for the production of biobased products from biorefinery carbohydrates—the US Department of Energy’s “Top 10” revisited, Joseph J. Bozell and Gene R. Petersen, Green Chem., 2010, 12, 539-554

 Converting carbohydrates to bulk chemicals and fine chemicals over heterogeneous catalysts, Maria J. Climent, Avelino Corma and Sara Iborra, Green Chem., 2011, 13, 520-540

Catalytic conversion of biomass to biofuels, David Martin Alonso, Jesse Q. Bond and James A. Dumesic, Green Chem., 2010, 12, 1493-1513

Green chemistry by nano-catalysis, Vivek Polshettiwar and Rajender S. Varma, Green Chem., 2010, 12, 743-754

Synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and CO2, Michael North, Riccardo Pasquale and Carl Young, Green Chem., 2010, 12, 1514-1539

Searching for green solvents, Philip G. Jessop, Green Chem., 2011, 13, 1391-1398

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) as a building block platform: Biological properties, synthesis and synthetic applications, Andreia A. Rosatella, Svilen P. Simeonov, Raquel F. M. Frade and Carlos A. M. Afonso, Green Chem., 2011, 13, 754-793

Vegetable oil-based polymeric materials: synthesis, properties, and applications, Ying Xia and Richard C. Larock, Green Chem., 2010, 12, 1893-1909

Glycerol as a sustainable solvent for green chemistry, Yanlong Gu and François Jérôme, Green Chem., 2010, 12, 1127-1138

Enzyme-mediated oxidations for the chemist, Frank Hollmann, Isabel W. C. E. Arends, Katja Buehler, Anett Schallmey and Bruno Bühler, Green Chem., 2011, 13, 226-265

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Green Chemistry issue 1, 2013 – now online!

The first issue of Green Chemistry for 2013 is now available to read online.  Click here to read the Editorial by the Chair of the Editorial Board, Professor Walter Leitner, and Editor, Sarah Ruthven.

The front cover of this month’s issue highlights the work of Bruce Lipshutz and colleagues from the University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.  The team reported the use of a nonionic amphiphile which efficiently enabled Stille couplings in water.  TPGS-750-M is a commercially available ‘designer’ surfactant which self-assembles to form nano-micelles in water.  Within each of these micelles, several coupling reactions can take place.  This procedure, which in most cases could be performed at room temperature, could be applied to a wide variety of substrates and leads to minimal waste generation.

Stille couplings in water at room temperature, Guo-ping Lu, Chun Cai and Bruce H. Lipshutz, Green Chem., 2013, 15, 105-109

The inside front cover features the work by Robert Davis and colleagues from the University of Virginia, USA.  In this Critical Review, the team evaluate the literature surrounding the use of supported metal nanoparticle catalysts for the selective oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes.  They compare the performances of the catalysts studied in this review by categorising reaction rates based on the turnover frequency as a common, consistent denominator.   The authors also look at factors that can affect the evaluation of reaction kinetics, such as catalyst deactivation, and give suggestions regarding how to obtain the best data.

Selective oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes over supported metal nanoparticles, Sara E. Davis, Matthew S. Ide and Robert J. Davis, Green Chem., 2012, 15, 17-45.

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Green Chemistry 15 years on…

In January 1999 the first issue of Green Chemistry was published with an Editorial written by James Clark, setting out his vision for the Journal.

GC 1999 Issue 1 Cover jpg

1999: First cover of Green Chemistry

Green Chemistry, 2013, Vol. 15, issue 1 front cover

GC, Vol. 15, issue 1 front cover

To mark the occasion of the Journal entering it’s fifteenth year of publication in 2013 we will be having a number of interesting articles asking those scientists who have contributed to the Journal strategy to reflect on how the subject has changed over the last 15 years and asking them for their vision on the subject in the future. 

We will also be highlighting those papers that have been most cited over the years – the papers that you as readers have been citing the most. 

Details about all of these activities will be posted on the Green Chemistry blog throughout 2013.

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Stopping endocrine disruptors in their tracks

The endocrine system

The endocrine system

US scientists have come up with a system to assess whether chemists’ latest synthetic product is an endocrine disruptor – a chemical that interferes with hormone regulation in animals and humans.

As industry seeks replacements for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as bisphenol A and some flame retardants, it often discovers that the replacements are no better, and sometimes worse, than what is being replaced. This is because the replacements have been designed using the same flawed tools as their parent chemicals and because of the lack of adequate EDC testing, say the scientists. Now, a team led by Pete Myers, chief executive and chief scientist at Environmental Health Sciences, Virginia, has come up with a way to address this using a system they call TiPED (tiered protocol for endocrine disruption).

Read the full article in Chemistry World!

Tweet: RT @ChemistryWorld Stopping endocrine disruptors in their tracks http://rsc.li/TUxb2q 

Link to journal article
Designing endocrine disruption out of the next generation of chemicals
T. T. Schug,  R. Abagyan, B. Blumberg, T. J. Collins, D. Crews, P. L. DeFur, S. M. Dickerson, T. M. Edwards, A. C. Gore, L. J. Guillette, T. Hayes, J. J. Heindel, A. Moores, H. B. Patisaul, T. L. Tal, K. A. Thayer, L. N. Vandenberg, J. C. Warner, C. S. Watson, F. S. vom Saal, R. T. Zoeller, K. P. O’Brien and J. P. Myers
Green Chem., 2013, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35055F

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Issue 12 of Green Chemistry now published online

The last issue of 2012 of Green Chemistry is now published online.

Green Chemistry issue 12, 2012, front coverThe front cover of this months’ issue features work by Amit Naskar and colleagues from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA, who report the development of lignin-based thermoplastics.  Lignin is one of the most abundant natural polymers, and represents an valuable renewable resource.  Previous work into applications of this material found that it could be combined with flexible polymers to produce a variety of co-polymer materials.  However, these materials tended to be thermoset plastics and brittle materials and therefore are barely recyclable.  Here the team managed to create lignin-based co-polymer thermoplastics, which would be recyclable and potentially biodegradable as well.

Turning renewable resources into value-added polymer: development of lignin-based thermoplastic, Tomonori Saito, Rebecca H. Brown, Marcus A. Hunt, Deanna L. Pickel, Joseph M. Pickel, Jamie M. Messman, Frederick S. Baker, Martin Keller and Amit K. Naskar, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 3295-3303

The inside front cover highlights work by Yu Fan, Xiaojun Bao and colleagues from the China University of Petroleum (China) and the University of British Columbia (Canada) who report the synthesis of zeolite Y from natural aluminosilicate minerals for application in fluid catalytic cracking.  Modern industrial synthesis of zeolite Y involves chemicals that are derived from natural bauxite, but this requires an huge amount of energy and generates a lot of waste.  Here, zeolite Y could be synthesised directly from natural aluminosilicate minerals, avoiding the need of additional inorganic chemicals and relying instead on natural raw materials.  The resulting zeolite exhibited outstanding catalytic cracking performance.

Synthesis of zeolite Y from natural aluminosilicate minerals for fluid catalytic cracking application, Tiesen Li, Haiyan Liu, Yu Fan, Pei Yuan, Gang Shi, Xiaotao T. Bi and Xiaojun Bao, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 3255-3259

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Meet our Authors: François Jérôme

Picture of François JérômeFrançois Jérôme is a research director at the CNRS University of Poitiers, France.  His research is focused on the catalytic activation of biomass and the subsequent conversion of the products to value-added chemicals.  François took a few moments to chat to Green Chemistry to talk about the challenges facing this field of research…

Who or what initially inspired you to become a chemist?

When I was a kid, I was very curious and I always wanted to have a rational explanation on many natural phenomena such as volcanoes, earthquakes, storms, space, etc… Later, when I entered the University, I had the chance to attend the courses of Prof. Pierre Dixneuf. During three consecutive years, he taught me with enthusiasm and passion catalysis and organometallic chemistry. His courses really gave me the taste of chemistry.

What has been the motivation behind your recent research?

The depletion of fossil carbon reserves together with the continuous increase of the barrel price requires the society to imagine and design new and innovative strategies. In this context, fascinating works have recently been proposed that now open new fields to be explored in chemistry. In particular, the synthesis of fine chemicals and chemical platforms from non-edible resources has become a fascinating topic. Beside the green aspect of this approach, the biggest challenge faced by chemists consists in designing bio-based chemicals with superior performances than fossil-derived chemicals while respecting the essential requirements of economic competitiveness and social progress. The concept of green chemistry has dramatically changed the way we work and driven us to think about chemistry differently. In particular, the design of an atom economical or energy-saving process is not self-satisfied anymore and major other issues of green chemistry need to be addressed such as supply of renewable raw materials, structural variability of biomass, which plants for which markets, biodiversity, resource management (water, metal, carbon) and environmental impact of processes. All of these considerations are really motivating mainly because the successful design of a “green process” obviously requires close collaborations between researchers with different scientific horizons.

What do you see as the main challenges facing research in this area?

Click here to read the full interview

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Top ten most accessed articles in September

This month sees the following articles in Green Chemistry that are in the top ten most accessed:-

A simple and efficient approach for the palladium-catalyzed ligand-free Suzuki reaction in water 
Chun Liu, Yixia Zhang, Ning Liu and Jieshan Qiu  
Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2999-3003 
DOI: 10.1039/c2gc36098e 

Multicomponent reactions in unconventional solvents: state of the art 
Yanlong Gu  
Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2091-2128 
DOI: 10.1039/c2gc35635j 

Transition metal-free, NaOtBu-O2-mediated one-pot cascade oxidation of allylic alcohols to α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids 
Sun Min Kim, Young Sug Kim, Dong Wan Kim and Jung Woon Yang  
Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2996-2998 
DOI: 10.1039/c2gc36203a 

Low melting mixtures in organic synthesis – an alternative to ionic liquids? 
Carolin Ruß and Burkhard König  
Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2969-2982 
DOI: 10.1039/c2gc36005e 

A convenient guide to help select replacement solvents for dichloromethane in chromatography 
Joshua P. Taygerly,  Larry M. Miller,  Alicia Yee and Emily A. Peterson  
Green Chem., 2012, 14, 3020-3025 
DOI: 10.1039/c2gc36064k 

Gold nanoparticles stabilized on nanocrystalline magnesium oxide as an active catalyst for reduction of nitroarenes in aqueous medium at room temperature 
Keya Layek, M. Lakshmi Kantam,  Masayuki Shirai, Daisuke Nishio-Hamane, Takehiko Sasaki and H. Maheswaran  
Green Chem., 2012, 14, 3164-3174 
DOI: 10.1039/c2gc35917k 

Highly atom-economic, catalyst- and solvent-free oxidation of sulfides into sulfones using 30% aqueous H2O2 
Marjan Jereb  
Green Chem., 2012, 14, 3047-3052 
DOI: 10.1039/c2gc36073j 

A one-pot approach for conversion of fructose to 2,5-diformylfuran by combination of Fe3O4-SBA-SO3H and K-OMS-2 
Yao Fu  
Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2986-2989 
DOI: 10.1039/c2gc35947b 

What’s new with CO2? Recent advances in its copolymerization with oxiranes 
Donald J. Darensbourg and Stephanie J. Wilson  
Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2665-2671 
DOI: 10.1039/c2gc35928f 

Transfer hydrogenation of ketones by ceria-supported Ni catalysts 
Katsuya Shimura and Ken-ichi Shimizu  
Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2983-2985 
DOI: 10.1039/c2gc35836k 

Why not take a look at the articles today and blog your thoughts and comments below.

Fancy submitting an article to Green Chemistry? Then why not submit to us today or alternatively email us with your suggestions.

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Issue 11 of Green Chemistry now online

The latest issue of Green Chemistry is now available to read online!

Green Chemistry, issue 11, 2012, front coverThe front cover of issue 11 of Green Chemistry features work my Pedro Lozano and colleagues from the University of Murcia, Spain, who report a clean bio-catalytic route to flavour esters.  The team used switchable ionic liquid/solid phases as the reaction/separation media to achieve this, whereby a fully homogeneous liquid phase could be achieved at 50 °C and a solid-phase system could be created at room temperature.  This allows the enzyme to function in the ionic liquid at temperatures compatible for enzyme catalysis, in this case giving almost 100% yields of flavour esters at 50 °C.  By cooling and subsequent centrifugation, the liquid, almost pure, reaction product could be easily separated off leaving the biocatalyst/ionic liquid system in place which can then be reused for multiple cycles.

A clean enzymatic process for producing flavour esters by direct esterification in switchable ionic liquid/solid phases, Pedro Lozano,  Juana M. Bernal and Alicia Navarro, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 3026-3033

The inside front cover of the issue features work by Joshua Taygerly, Emily Peterson and colleagues from Amgen Inc. and Northeastern University, USA, who have developed a guide which aims to help synthetic chemists find suitable and more environmentally friendly alternatives to a DCM-solvent system for chromatographic purification of compounds.  The authors selected several ‘drug-like’ molecules which reflected the types of molecules regularly prepared and purified, tested several alternative solvent systems to DCM.  From the results, they assembled a figure which allows the scientist to find the potentially equivalent, alternative system(s).  The primary use of this guide is to provide chemists with a quickly identifiable starting point for selecting alternative solvent systems to DCM.

A convenient guide to help select replacement solvents for dichloromethane in chromatography, Joshua P. Taygerly, Larry M. Miller, Alicia Yee and Emily A. Peterson, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 3020-3025

These articles are free to access for 6 weeks!

You can also read Pedro Lozano’s recent interview with Green Chemistry here.

Stay up-to-date with the latest news and content in Green Chemistry by registering for our free table of contents alerts.

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