Diversity-oriented synthesis of biaryl-containing macrocycles

Developing efficient protocols for the synthesis of macrocycle-containing molecules has been a longstanding challenge in chemistry. In a recent OBC publication, collaborative efforts between Prof. Tomás Torroba of the University of Burgos and Prof. Luis Miranda of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México have resulted in a diversity oriented synthetic strategy for the synthesis of biaryl-containing macrocycles.

Macrocyclic structures have utility in many different areas of chemistry and have significant applications in medicine due to their broad range of biological activities. Compared to small molecules, macrocycles offer unique functional advantages in terms of selectivity and potency as their cyclic framework enables a high degree of structural preorganization such that key functional groups can interact across extended binding pockets without a major loss of entropy. Moreover, macrocycles display favourable drug-like properties such as improved solubility, lipophilicity, membrane penetration and stability.

Of interest are peptide macrocycles containing an endo aryl-aryl bond which constitute an important class of biologically active macrocyclic natural products. In terms of established synthetic approaches, two strategies have been commonly implemented 1) construction of the biaryl unit followed by a cyclization and 2) ring closure through the formation of the aryl-aryl bond.

These routes are limited however by the synthesis of the peptide backbone which typically requires challenging multi-step sequences.

To circumvent this issue, Torobba and Miranda proposed a sequence combining a Ugi four component reaction (Ugi-4CR) with a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling for rapid access to the desired macrocycles in a diversity oriented approach. This synthetic strategy is composed of four steps: 1) Ugi-4CR using two bifunctional building blocks, the mono-Boc protected diamine and iodine containing carboxylic acid; 2) Boc cleavage; 3) a second Ugi-4CR involving a MIDA protected boron-containing carboxylic acid and finally 4) Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling-based macrocyclization.

After optimisation, the synthesis of a small collection of biaryl-containing macrocycles was carried out with good overall yields (35-65% isolated yield) and their cytotoxicity evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines.

The ease with which this synthetic sequence can be reproduced in combination with their preliminary biological results will no doubt open doors for the future evaluation of larger collections of this class of biaryl-containing macrocycles and in determining their full potential in drug discovery.

To find out more see:

Diversity-oriented synthesis and cytotoxic activity evaluation of biaryl-containing macrocycles
Karell Pérez-Labrada, Marco A. Cruz-Mendoza, Alejandra Chávez-Riveros, Eduardo Hernández-Vázquez, Tomás Torroba and Luis D. Miranda
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB02726A


Victoria Corless is currently completing her Ph.D. in organic chemistry with Prof. Andrei Yudin at The University of Toronto. Her research is centred on the synthesis of kinetically amphoteric molecules which offer a versatile platform for the development of chemoselective transformations with particular emphasis on creating novel biologically active molecules.

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Synthesis of challenging oligosaccharides by harnessing glycosyltransferase activity directly from human breast milk

Synthetic oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates are being increasingly used to solve important problems within biological research for vaccine development and drug discovery purposes. However, due to their complicated isolation and characterization from biological fluids, as well as a lack of general and efficient protocols for their preparation, progress within the field has been limited.

A recent OBC publication from Prof. Carmen Galan of the University of Bristol seeks to overcome this longstanding challenge using imidazolium-labeled (ITag) glycosides. Ionic liquid-based labels are emerging as a new class of covalent chemical labels that provide a unique handle for facile identification and purification of substrates from complex reaction mixtures using mass spectroscopy.

It was hypothesised that the ITag-glycan probes could be used to harness the natural biosynthetic machinery present in human breastmilk (i.e. glycosyltransferases) to access biologically important oligosaccharides. This study circumvents lengthy and costly chemical syntheses as well as the need to isolate a specific enzyme which can be challenging to express and applicable only to small-scale production.

In a matter of days, the group was able to access a series of highly desirable oligosaccharides, including LacNAc-ITag, ITag-Lewisx and ITAg-Lewisa through incubation of a labelled glycoside in readily sourced human breast milk. The capability of ITag to aid in the synthesis of oligosaccharides from a complex, multi-enzyme environment is pivotal. This technology could revolutionize the way in which synthetic, enzymatic transformations are carried out and has the potential to expand outside of carbohydrate chemistry.

To find out more see:

Imidazolium-labeled glycosides as probes to harness glycosyltransferase activity in human breast milk
I. Sittel and M. C. Galan
DOI: 10.1039/C7OB00550D


Victoria Corless is currently completing her Ph.D. in organic chemistry with Prof. Andrei Yudin at The University of Toronto. Her research is centred on the synthesis of kinetically amphoteric molecules which offer a versatile platform for the development of chemoselective transformations with particular emphasis on creating novel biologically active molecules.

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Introducing Professor Motomu Kanai, OBC Associate Editor

Professor Motomu Kanai has joined Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry as an Associate Editor. We are delighted to welcome him to the team and look forward to working with him over the coming years.

 

Motomu Kanai was born in 1967 in Tokyo, Japan, and received his bachelor degree from The University of Tokyo (UTokyo) in 1989 under the direction of late Professor Kenji Koga. In the middle of his PhD course in UTokyo (in 1992), he obtained an assistant professor position in Professor Kiyoshi Tomioka’s group of Osaka University. He obtained his PhD from Osaka University in 1995 before moving to the University of Wisconsin, USA, for postdoctoral studies with Professor Laura L. Kiessling. In 1997 he returned to Japan and joined Professor Masakatsu Shibasaki’s group in UTokyo as an assistant professor, being a lecturer (2000~2003) and an associate professor (2003~2010). He is currently a professor at UTokyo and is a principle investigator of the ERATO Kanai Life Science Project (2011~2017). He has received The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan Award for Young Scientists (2001), Thieme Journals Award (2003), Merck-Banyu Lectureship Award (MBLA: 2005), Asian Core Program Lectureship Award (2008 and 2010), and Thomson-Reuters The 4th Research Front Award (2016). His research interests focus on the design and synthesis of functional (especially, biologically active) molecules.

 

Professor Kanai’s recent articles in OBC include:

5-Position-selective C–H trifluoromethylation of 8-aminoquinoline derivatives
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2016, 14, 8092-8100, Paper

Directing activator-assisted regio- and oxidation state-selective aerobic oxidation of secondary C(sp3)–H bonds in aliphatic alcohols
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2016, 14, 4378-4381, Communication

This article is part of the themed collection: 2016 Hot Articles in Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry

 

Find out more about Professor Kanai and his research on his lab’s webpage.

Submit your work for Professor Kanai to handle today.

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Insights into temperature controlled enantioselectivity in asymmetric catalysis

The rare phenomenon of enantioselectivity reversal, using a simple change in reaction temperature control, is presented in the latest HOT article published in OBC.

The ability to mimic nature’s stereochemical control in the production of complex molecules has been a longstanding challenge in chemistry. There are numerous strategies chemists have implemented to generate stereochemically complex structures, however, with the advent of asymmetric catalysis, highly stereoselective reactions can be achieved using chiral reagents and catalysts.

In a recent OBC publication by Prof. Kenso Soai of Tokyo University and researchers from Merck, one of the very few examples in which the enantioselective outcome of a reaction is controlled through temperature was presented. Gaining enantioselective control by changing simple reaction parameters has been an attractive and long sought after advancement within the field of asymmetric catalysis. While there are examples of enantioselective control using solvent, metals and additives, very few examples exist that use temperature alone.

The study outlines the effect of temperature on the asymmetric autocatalysis of pyrimidal alkanol in the addition reaction of diisopropyl zinc to the pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde. After reaction initiation using a chiral initiator, the product alkanol behaves as an asymmetric catalyst for its own formation and infers its chirality to the product in an autocatalytic cycle. When the reaction was performed at 0 ºC in the presence of (S)-1-phenyl-ethyl alcohol, as expected, (S)-pyrimidal alkanol was afforded in high enantiomeric excess. Interestingly, when the reaction was cooled to -44 ºC, the opposite enantioselectivity was observed though with a slightly lower enantiomeric excess of the desired alkanol.

The exact mechanism through which this reversal happens is still unclear however, it’s speculated that the relationship between temperature and the relative enthalpic vs. entropic contributions to free energy may play a part or the temperature dependent aggregation of zinc alkoxide may also be involved.

It’s important to remember that the temperature effect on reactions involving organozinc reagents is not always straight forward and may not always lead to the best outcome.

Regardless, this study provides interesting insight into temperature controlled enantioselectivity that may lead to a more detailed understanding of such processes and how they can be synthetically exploited.

To find out more see:

Unusual reversal of enantioselectivity in the asymmetric autocatalysis of pyrimidyl alkanol triggered by chiral aromatic alkanols and amines
Arimasa Matusmoto, Satoshi Fujiwara, Yui Hiyoshi,aKerstin Zawatzky, Alexey A. Makarov, Christopher J. Welch and Kenso Soai
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB02415G


Victoria Corless is currently completing her Ph.D. in organic chemistry with Prof. Andrei Yudin at The University of Toronto. Her research is centred on the synthesis of kinetically amphoteric molecules, which offer a versatile platform for the development of chemoselective transformations with particular emphasis on creating novel biologically active molecules.

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Enhancing nonlinear optical imaging through porphyrin-based dyes

Over the past several decades, advances in cell imaging have dramatically transformed biology and medicine. Fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy are currently the most popular imaging techniques however, there are intrinsic limitations; many substrates are non-fluorescent or weakly fluorescent, fluorescent labels are often perturbative for small molecules and peptides and, perhaps most importantly, labelling or staining with fluorophores are not recommended for in vivo medicinal applications in humans. Hence, the search for highly sensitive optical imaging methods is increasingly desirable in biomedical and material sciences.

Nonlinear optical imaging is an emerging technology that encompasses a range of optical phenomena. In a recent study by Prof. Koen Clays of the University of Leuven and Prof. Harry Anderson of Oxford University, a new group of chromophores based on pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester (PPa-OMe) was developed for the linear and nonlinear optical imaging of membrane potentials as well as biological imaging of structures through two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SGH) microscopy.

In TPEF, a fluorophore is excited by the simultaneous absorption of two photons in the infrared spectral range. In conventional one-photon fluorescence, the same transition to higher energy levels requires photons in the ultraviolet or visible range. The longer incident wavelength in TPEF leads to improved depth penetration in tissues, with reduced potential for photolytic damage. SHG, on the other hand, is a nonlinear process where two photons interact with a nonlinear material and are effectively combined to generate new photons with twice the energy. This process does not involve absorption of photons but relies on virtual energy states and can only occur in materials that exhibit a non-centrosymmetric structure.

Unlike incoherent processes such as fluorescence, coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopies generate different optical signals depending on the underlying processes. They have broad utility as biomedical tools, offering contrasting mechanisms to fluorescence emissions and provide a useful alternative to label-based imaging.

In this OBC publication, the electronic structure of PPa-OMe (1a) was altered to tune it’s linear and nonlinear optical properties. Porphyrins and related porphyrinoid chromophores inherently possess excellent linear and nonlinear optical properties due to their large, conjugated π-system. By incorporating both electron-donating and –accepting groups, a push-pull type system was generated in which greater SHG intensity was observed due to the increased polarization of its π-system. A hydrophilic group, bis-triethyleneglycol (TEG) amide, was attached to make PPa-OMe amphiphilic and was then suspended in lipid-based water in oil monolayer droplets—a simple model system used to probe potentials across cellular membranes. TPEF and SHG images of the bis-TEG amide attached dyes revealed that the TPEF and SHG involve transition dipole moments in different orientations. While TPEF is detectable in all directions around the sample, SHG is detected in the forward direction of the incident light meaning there is an overall cancelling of the SHG signal from anti-parallel dyes. In order to improve these systems, control over orientation within cell membranes is crucial however, chromophores based on these PPa-OMe derivatives are promising prototypes for future cell imaging studies.

To find out more see:

Push-pull pyropheophorbides for nonlinear optical imaging
Anjul Khadria, Yovan de Coene, Przemyslaw Gawel, Cécile Roche, Koen Clays and Harry L. Anderson
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB02319C


Victoria Corless is currently completing her Ph.D. in organic chemistry with Prof. Andrei Yudin at The University of Toronto. Her research is centred on the synthesis of kinetically amphoteric molecules, which offer a versatile platform for the development of chemoselective transformations with particular emphasis on creating novel biologically active molecules.

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Outstanding Reviewers for Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry in 2016

Following the success of Peer Review Week in September 2016 (dedicated to reviewer recognition) during which we published a list of our top reviewers, we will continue to recognise the contribution that our reviewers make to the journal by announcing our Outstanding Reviewers each year.

Outstanding Reviewers for Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry in 2016, as selected by the editorial team, have been chosen based on the number, timeliness and quality of the reports completed over the last 12 months.

A big thank you to those individuals listed here as well as to all of the reviewers that have supported the journal, helping us to get decisions to authors in under 3 weeks, on average. Each Outstanding Reviewer will receive a certificate to give recognition for their significant contribution.

Professor Kyo Han Ahn, Pohang Univeristy of Science and Technology

Professor Barry Carpenter, Cardiff University

Dr Justin Chalker, Flinders University

Dr Bobo Dang, University of California

Professor Concepción González Bello, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

Dr Alakananda Hajra, Visva-Bharati University

Dr Charles Heath, CSIRO

Professor Colin Suckling, University of Strathclyde

Professor David Yu-Kai Chen, Seoul National University

Professor Jian Zhou, East China Normal University

We would also like to thank the Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry boards and the organic chemistry community for their continued support of the journal, as authors, reviewers and readers.

If you would like to become a reviewer for our journal, just email us with details of your research interests and an up-to-date CV or résumé.  You can find more details in our author and reviewer resource centre

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Time to Publication 2016

At OBC, we know one thing important to our authors is getting a decision to them quickly after they’ve submitted to us. That is why we worked extremely hard in 2016 to make this incredible fast, again.

We are proud to announce that in 2016, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry got the first decision to authors in 12 days for Communications and 18 days for Papers on average, based on articles sent for peer review.

Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry’s Publication Times for 2016

Our average time from submission to Final Article Publication in 2016 was only 34 days for Communications and 43 days for Papers. As well as this, if an author opted for our Accepted Manuscript option, the unedited version of their manuscript was online a week earlier!

We would like to thank our referees for sending us thorough reviews so quickly as we could not have done this without you. We will be celebrating our referees more in the coming months so make sure you check back on this page.

If you would like to submit to OBC for rapid consideration of your high-quality organic chemistry research please see our website.

 

Make sure you’re following us on Twitter (@OrgBiomolChem) and Facebook (@obc.journal)!

Stay up to date with the latest from Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry by signing up for our weekly e-mail alerts. Fill in the online form today at http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/forms/V5profile.asp

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Twitter Poster Conference 2017

Want to share your research with like-minded chemists around the world and win prizes without having to leave the lab? Then why not enter our Twitter Poster Conference!

Happening on Monday 20th March (9am GMT) to Tuesday 21st March (9am GMT), this exclusively online event brings members of the scientific research community together to network, share and engage in scientific debate.

How to Take Part

During the event simply tweet an image (e.g. JPEG) which will be a digital poster summarising your research along with #RSCPoster, the most appropriate subject area hashtag (either #RSCOrg or #RSCChemBio) and the title of your work.

For example:

Example tweet for the 2017 RSC Twitter Poster Conference

You will then need to upload your poster and details onto our Tumblr site, under either the RSC Org or RSC ChemBio categories depending on your poster (more information on the site).

How to Win

Poster prizes will be given for posters with the best content, design, accessibility and interactions (like questions asked and answered) – so make sure you check back regularly in the day and follow #RSCPoster. There is also an audience award for the most re-tweeted poster.

To be able to win a prize, email us before the event at RSCPoster@gmail.com and let us know your name, contact details, the title of your topic and your twitter ID.

Full terms and conditions can be found here, as well as other subject area hashtags.

GOOD LUCK!

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Most read articles in July – September 2016

The articles below are 10 of the most read Review articles and 10 of the most read Papers & Communications from Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry in July, August and September 2016.

Review Articles

Transition-metal catalyzed valorization of lignin: the key to a sustainable carbon-neutral future
Markus D. Kärkäs, Bryan S. Matsuura, Timothy M. Monos, Gabriel Magallanes and Corey R. J. Stephenson
DOI: 10.1039/C5OB02212F, Review Article

Selective chemical labeling of proteins
Xi Chen and Yao-Wen Wu
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB00126B, Review Article

Synthesis of substituted pyrenes by indirect methods
Juan M. Casas-Solvas, Joshua D. Howgego and Anthony P. Davis
DOI: 10.1039/C3OB41993B, Review Article

Modern advances in heterocyclic chemistry in drug discovery
Alexandria P. Taylor, Ralph P. Robinson, Yvette M. Fobian, David C. Blakemore, Lyn H. Jones and Olugbeminiyi Fadeyi
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB00936K, Review Article

Recent applications in natural product synthesis of dihydrofuran and -pyran formation by ring-closing alkene metathesis
Reece Jacques, Ritashree Pal, Nicholas A. Parker, Claire E. Sear, Peter W. Smith, Aubert Ribaucourt and David M. Hodgson
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB00593D, Review Article

Organic synthetic transformations using organic dyes as photoredox catalysts
Shunichi Fukuzumi and Kei Ohkubo
DOI: 10.1039/C4OB00843J, Review Article

Palladium catalysed meta-C–H functionalization reactions
Aniruddha Dey, Soumitra Agasti and Debabrata Maiti
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB00395H, Review Article

Design and synthesis of analogues of natural products
Martin E. Maier
DOI: 10.1039/C5OB00169B, Review Article

Biomineralization-inspired synthesis of functional organic/inorganic hybrid materials: organic molecular control of self-organization of hybrids
Atsushi Arakaki, Katsuhiko Shimizu, Mayumi Oda, Takeshi Sakamoto, Tatsuya Nishimura and Takashi Kato
DOI: 10.1039/C4OB01796J , Review Article

Synthesis of highly functionalized C60 fullerene derivatives and their applications in material and life sciences
Weibo Yan, Stefan M. Seifermann, Philippe Pierrat and Stefan Bräse
DOI: 10.1039/C4OB01663G, Review Article


Papers & Communications

A protocol for amide bond formation with electron deficient amines and sterically hindered substrates
Maria E. Due-Hansen, Sunil K. Pandey, Elisabeth Christiansen, Rikke Andersen, Steffen V. F. Hansen and Trond Ulven
DOI: 10.1039/C5OB02129D, Communication

5-Position-selective C–H trifluoromethylation of 8-aminoquinoline derivatives
Ben S. Pilgrim, Alice E. Gatland, Carlos H. A. Esteves, Charlie T. McTernan, Geraint R. Jones, Matthew R. Tatton, Panayiotis A. Procopiou and Timothy J. Donohoe
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB01325B, Paper

Enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted trans-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans using a Brønsted base/thiourea bifunctional catalyst
Pan Gao, Li Liu, Zhuangzhi Shi and Yu Yuan
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB01326K, Paper

Iridium(III)-catalyzed regioselective direct arylation of sp2 C–H bonds with diaryliodonium salts
Estela Haldón, M. Carmen Nicasio and Pedro J. Pérez
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB01145D, Paper

Palladium-catalyzed enolate arylation as a key C–C bond-forming reaction for the synthesis of isoquinolines
Ben S. Pilgrim, Alice E. Gatland, Carlos H. A. Esteves, Charlie T. McTernan, Geraint R. Jones, Matthew R. Tatton, Panayiotis A. Procopiou and Timothy J. Donohoe
DOI: 10.1039/C5OB02320C, Paper

Facile one-pot synthesis of unsymmetrical ureas, carbamates, and thiocarbamates from Cbz-protected amines
Hee-Kwon Kim and Anna Lee
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB01290F, Paper

Insights into the catalytic mechanism of N-acetylglucosaminidase glycoside hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis: a QM/MM study
Hao Su, Xiang Sheng and Yongjun Liu
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB00320F, Paper

Scalable anti-Markovnikov hydrobromination of aliphatic and aromatic olefins
Marzia Galli, Catherine J. Fletcher, Marc del Pozo and Stephen M. Goldup
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB00692B, Communication

A rapid and efficient one-pot method for the reduction of N-protected α-amino acids to chiral α-amino aldehydes using CDI/DIBAL-H
Jakov Ivkovic, Christian Lembacher-Fadum and Rolf Breinbauer
DOI: 10.1039/C5OB01838B, Communication

Pd-catalyzed cascade allylic alkylation and dearomatization reactions of indoles with vinyloxirane
Run-Duo Gao, Qing-Long Xu, Li-Xin Dai and Shu-Li You
DOI: 10.1039/C6OB01523A, Communication

Keep up-to-date with the latest issues of Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry with our E-alerts

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Editor’s Choice – Meet our Associate Editors

Meet our Associate Editors and read some of their favourite recent OBC articles for free*

Professor Jin-Quan Yu’s (Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA) research centres around the discovery of novel reactions based on C-H activation.

Jin’s recommended articles:

C–H activation enables a rapid structure–activity relationship study of arylcyclopropyl amines for potent and selective LSD1 inhibitors
Shin Miyamura, Misaho Araki, Yosuke Ota, Yukihiro Itoh, Shusuke Yasuda, Mitsuharu Masuda, Tomoyuki Taniguchi, Yoshihiro Sowa, Toshiyuki Sakai, Takayoshi Suzuki, Kenichiro Itami, Junichiro Yamaguchi

Asymmetric synthesis of (−)-renieramycin T
Junhao Jia, Ruijiao Chen, Hao Liu, Xiong Li, Yuanliang Jia, Xiaochuan Chen


Professor Margaret Brimble (University of Auckland, New Zealand) is the Director of Medicinal Chemistry and a distinguished Professor at the University of Auckland. Her research program focuses on the synthesis of bioactive natural products, antimicrobial peptides and peptidomimetics.

Margaret’s recommended articles:

Concise diastereoselective synthesis of calcaripeptide C via asymmetric transfer hydrogenation/Pd-induced chiral allenylzinc as a key reaction
Gullapalli Kumaraswamy, Vykunthapu Narayanarao, Ragam Raju

Concise synthesis of calystegines B and B< intramolecular Nozaki–Hiyama–Kishi reaction
Hong-Yao Wang, Atsushi Kato, Kyoko Kinami, Yi-Xian Li, George W. J. Fleet, Chu-Yi Yu


Professor Christian Hackenberger’s (Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie and Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Germany) research focuses on the development of new bioorthogonal reactions to study protein function and in particular posttranslational modifications, addressing issues such as the study of the Alzheimer-relevant tau protein, antibody-drug conjugates and new methods for the delivery of functional proteins into cells.

Christian’s recommended articles:

Site-selective incorporation and ligation of protein aldehydes
Richard J. Spears, Martin A. Fascione

Protein ubiquitination via dehydroalanine: development and insights into the diastereoselective 1,4-addition step
Roman Meledin, Sachitanand M. Mali, Sumeet K. Singh, Ashraf Brik


Professor Lei Liu’s (Tsinghua University, China) research group is interested in all aspects of chemical protein synthesis.

Lei’s recommended articles:

Hybrid phase ligation for efficient synthesis of histone proteins
Ruixuan R. Yu, Santosh K. Mahto, Kurt Justus, Mallory M. Alexander, Cecil J. Howard, Jennifer J. Ottesen

Enediyne-based protein capture agents: demonstration of an enediyne moiety acting as a photoaffinity label
Joyee Das, Sayantani Roy, Swapnil Halnor, Amit Kumar Das and Amit Basak


We invite you to submit your urgent research to their editorial offices. With a reputation for quality and fast times to publication, OBC is the home of highly significant original research and reviews in all areas of organic chemistry, including organic synthesis, physical organic chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and bioorganic chemistry.

————————————–

*Access is free until 31/12/2016 through a registered RSC account.

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