2014 Emerging Investigators Issue

Emerging Investigators Guest Editors David Cwiertny, Juana Maria Delgado-Saborit and Hee-Deung Park introduce the third edition of our emerging investigators issue.

Celebrating the best and brightest amongst early career environmental scientists around the world, this collection of reviews and papers demonstrates the talent, innovation and creative ideas that new researchers can bring.  Read the profiles of the contributors to find out more about our young scientists, including their research objectives, inspirations and what environmental challenges they believe the future holds.

We have made the following HOT articles free* to access for a limited time only! We hope you enjoy reading this collection as much as we did.

Critical Reviews:

B. D. Shoener, I. M. Bradley, R. D. Cusick and J. S. Guest
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00711A

Critical Review of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for water treatment application

Brian P. Chaplin
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00679D


impacts of UV protections on bacterial survival

HOT Paper:

Association of nuisance filamentous algae Cladophora spp. with E. coli and Salmonella in public beach waters: impacts of UV protection on bacterial survival

Aubrey Beckinghausen, Alexia Martinez, David Blersch and Berat Z. Haznedaroglu
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00659J

For the full collection, visit our 2014 Emerging Investigators Themed Issue platform.

*Access is free through a registered RSC account – click here to register

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Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts

ESPI Themed IssueESPI Board NewsRecent ES:PI& Articles

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Free access to HOT Articles

These HOT articles were recommended by our referees and are free to access for 4 weeks*

Towards energy neutral wastewater treatment: methodology and state of the art
Han Gao, Yaniv D. Scherson and George F. Wells  
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 1223-1246
DOI: 10.1039/C4EM00069B

Graphical abstract: Towards energy neutral wastewater treatment: methodology and state of the art

Primary and secondary organics in the tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: chiral analysis of 2-methyltetraols
N. J. D. González, A.-K. Borg-Karlson, P. Artaxo, A. Guenther, R. Krejci, B. Nozière and K. Noone  
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 1413-1421
DOI: 10.1039/C4EM00102H

Graphical abstract: Primary and secondary organics in the tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: chiral analysis of 2-methyltetraols

An examination of traditional foods and cigarette smoking as cadmium sources among the nine First Nations of Eeyou Istchee, northern Quebec, Canada
Nadia A. Charania, Leonard J. S. Tsuji, Ian D. Martin, Eric N. Liberda, Suzanne Coté, Pierre Ayotte, Eric Dewailly and Evert Nieboer  
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 1422-1433
DOI: 10.1039/C4EM00064A

Graphical abstract: An examination of traditional foods and cigarette smoking as cadmium sources among the nine First Nations of Eeyou Istchee, northern Quebec, Canada

*Free access to individuals is provided through an RSC Publishing personal account. It’s quick, easy and more importantly – free – to register!

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Aquatic Photochemistry Themed Issue

Issue 4 of Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts was a themed issue of Aquatic Photochemistry

The field of aquatic photochemistry is diverse and strong, therefore our Editorial Board member, Kristopher McNeill presents a themed issue covering a range of topics and sub-disciplines within environmental science, representing current aquatic photochemical research.

Kristopher found the process of guest editing the aquatic photochemistry themed issue rewarding. ‘From the very start, I had an enthusiastic response to my call for papers and, when looking at the collection in its final form, I was extremely happy with the quality and breadth of the science that it reflected’ he says.

‘I was especially happy with the contributions of the young investigators; from whom I am sure we will be seeing a lot more in the future.’ Kristopher selected 2 critical reviews and a paper by young investigators who contributed to this collection and for a limited time only, these articles are free* to access. Click the following links to download the full articles.

Critical Reviews:

Photo-transformation of pharmaceutically active compounds in the aqueous environment: a review
Shuwen Yan and Weihua Song
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00502J

The role of indirect photochemical degradation in the environmental fate of pesticides: a review
Christina K. Remucal
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00549F

Paper:

Photometric hydroxyl radical scavenging analysis of standard natural organic matter isolates
J. E. Donham, E. J. Rosenfeldt and K. R. Wigginton
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00663H

Kristopher’s research paper on photochemically produced hydroxyl radical in artic surface water was included in this collection. We would like to thank him for guest editing this exciting issue; his paper will be free* to access until Friday 20th June 2014.

Evidence for dissolved organic matter as the primary source and sink of photochemically produced hydroxyl radical in arctic surface waters
Sarah E. Page, J. Robert Logan, Rose M. Cory and Kristopher McNeill
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00596H

*Access is free until 20.06.14 through a registered RSC account – click here to register

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Passive Sampling Themed Issue

Issue 3 of Environmental Science: Process & Impacts was a themed issue dedicated to passive sampling

Philipp Mayer, Frank Wania and Charles S. Wong introduce an ESPI themed issue on passive sampling.

This themed collection showcases some of the latest developments in passive sampling research – which has now progressed well beyond measuring aqueous concentrations of legacy contaminants. The contributions in this collection contain a wide range of different passive sampling approaches which were applied to water, air, soil vapours, sediments and even fish tissue. Improved sampler designs and materials are being developed and tested, contributing to the increasing popularity of passive sampling. The apparent simplicity of passive sampling is at the core of its true potential and betrays a wealth of opportunity for future research and monitoring.

To celebrate this collection, the following articles are free* to access – for a limited time only!

Passive sampling systems for ambient air mercury measurements

A review of passive sampling systems for ambient air mercury measurements
Jiaoyan Huang, Seth N. Lyman, Jelena Stamenkovic Hartman and Mae Sexauer Gustin
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00501A

Application of passive sampling methods for measurement of Hg concentrations and deposition is useful for understanding source and trends.

Evaluation of DGTEvaluation of DGT as a long-term water quality monitoring tool in natural waters; uranium as a case study
Geraldine S. C. Turner, Graham A. Mills, Michael J. Bowes, Jonathan L. Burnett, Sean Amos and Gary R. Fones
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00574G

DGT can be used as a long-term water quality environmental monitoring tool.

Low density polyethylene passive samplers

Field calibration of low density polyethylene passive samplers for gaseous POPs
Mohammed A. Khairy and Rainer Lohmann
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00493G

A field calibration study of low density polyethylene for measuring atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants was performed in East Providence (RI) USA.

*Access is free until 13.06.14 through a registered RSC account – click here to register

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Top ten most accessed ES:P&I articles in Q1 2014

This month sees the following articles in Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts that are in the top ten most accessed January – March:-

Human exposure to aluminium 
Christopher Exley 
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2013,15, 1807-1816
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00374D  
  
A review with recent advancements on bioremediation-based abolition of heavy metals 
Nisha Gaur, Gagan Flora, Mahavir Yadav and Archana Tiwari    
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 180-193
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00491K  
  
Iron nanoparticles for environmental clean-up: recent developments and future outlook 
Weile Yan, Hsing-Lung Lien, Bruce E. Koel and Wei-xian Zhang    
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2013,15, 63-77
DOI: 10.1039/C2EM30691C  
  
The role of indirect photochemical degradation in the environmental fate of pesticides: a review 
Dr Christina Keenan Remucal 
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 628-653
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00549F  
  
Temporal trend studies on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ringed seals from East Greenland 
Frank Rigét, Katrin Vorkamp, Rune Dietz and Suresh C. Rastogi    
J. Environ. Monit., 2006,8, 1000-1005
DOI: 10.1039/B609522D  
 
Identification of polymer types and additives in marine microplastic particles using pyrolysis-GC/MS and scanning electron microscopy 
Elke Fries, Jens H. Dekiff, Jana Willmeyer, Marie-Theres Nuelle, Martin Ebert and Dominique Remy    
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2013,15, 1949-1956
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00214D  
  
Quantitation of persistent organic pollutants adsorbed on plastic debris from the Northern Pacific Gyre’s “eastern garbage patch” 
Lorena M. Rios, Patrick R. Jones, Charles Moore and Urja V. Narayan    
J. Environ. Monit., 2010,12, 2226-2236
DOI: 10.1039/C0EM00239A  
 
Planning for sustainability in China’s urban development: Status and challenges for Dongtan eco-city project 
Hefa Cheng and Yuanan Hu    
J. Environ. Monit., 2010,12, 119-126
DOI: 10.1039/B911473D  
 
Impact of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles on wastewater treatment and anaerobic digestion 
Yu Yang, Chiqian Zhang and Zhiqiang Hu    
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2013,15, 39-48
DOI: 10.1039/C2EM30655G  
 
Silver nanoparticles in the environment 
Su-juan Yu, Yong-guang Yin and Jing-fu Liu    
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2013,15, 78-92
DOI: 10.1039/C2EM30595J  

Why not take a look at the articles today and blog your thoughts and comments below.

Fancy submitting an article to Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts? Then why not submit to us today or alternatively email us your suggestions.

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Free access to HOT articles

These HOT articles were recommended by our referees and are free to access for 4 weeks*

Structural characterization of dissolved organic matter: a review of current techniques for isolation and analysis
Elizabeth C. Minor, Michael M. Swenson, Bruce M. Mattson and Alan R. Oyler  
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C4EM00062E, Critical Review

Graphical abstract: Structural characterization of dissolved organic matter: a review of current techniques for isolation and analysis

Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies
B. D. Shoener, I. M. Bradley, R. D. Cusick and J. S. Guest  
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00711A, Critical Review

Graphical abstract: Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies

Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production
R. A. Field, J. Soltis and S. Murphy  
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 954-969
DOI: 10.1039/C4EM00081A, Perspective

Graphical abstract: Air quality concerns of unconventional oil and natural gas production

Radiocesium derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in seabed sediments: initial deposition and inventories
Shigeyoshi Otosaka and Yoshihisa Kato  
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 978-990
DOI: 10.1039/C4EM00016A, Paper

Graphical abstract: Radiocesium derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in seabed sediments: initial deposition and inventories

*Free access to individuals is provided through an RSC Publishing personal account. It’s quick, easy and more importantly – free – to register!

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Shedding light on the degradation of black carbon in surface waters

By Ian Keyte, Doctoral Researcher at University of Birmingham and web writer for the Royal Society of Chemistry Environmental Team

Degradation by sunlight is an important sink for black carbon in surface waters. This study by researchers at University of Michigan and Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia demonstrates how partial degradation of condensed aromatic compounds is the primary mechanism for this process.


The predicted frequency of wildfire activity during the 21st century will lead to increased production of black carbon (BC) in the environment. The recalcitrant nature of BC means it displays a relatively long residence time in soils, thus constituting a key sink for atmospheric CO2.

Abiotic and microbial degradation of condensed aromatics of BC in soils can lead to transfer of water-soluble BC components to surface waters, as well as particulate BC. This will expose both particulate and dissolved BC components to degradation by sunlight.  The condensed aromatic component of BC in surface waters can be photo-oxidized either completely, forming CO2 or partially, forming compounds no longer be detected as BC.

Identifying the contribution of complete and partial BC photodegradation is key to understanding the extent and speed to which CO2 is returned to the carbon cycle. To date no study has investigated the relative importance of these two competing reaction pathways in surface waters. This study by Collin Ward and co-workers represents the first quantitative assessment of partial vs. complete photoxidation of BC in dissolved and particulate phases.

Previously, degradation of condensed aromatics has investigated using FT-ICR-MS or detection of molecular markers such as benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs). However this approach cannot distinguish between complete and partial oxidation.

In this study, aqueous suspensions of particulate BC (BC-p) and solutions of dissolved BC (BC-d) were prepared from charring of arctic biomass, mimicking BC produced from wildfires. These were exposed to natural sunlight in a 17 hour exposure experiment. Complete and partial oxidation were quantified by monitoring CO2 production and O2 consumption using a dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) analyser and membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) respectively.

Complementing this approach, the study also investigated the shift in chemical/optical properties of BC during exposure using UV-Vis absorbance, fluorescence spectroscopy and FT-ICR-MS. Results were assessed relative to dark control tests.

Results indicate BC-d in surface waters was disproportionately more susceptible to photooxidation than BCp, based on O2 consumption and CO2 production during exposure. It was shown that 8-13% of the C in BC-d was photo-mineralized to CO2 while 68-91% was partially oxidized to compounds that remained in solution.

Following exposure to sunlight the majority of identified molecules in the mass spectra were aliphatics (85%) with smaller amounts of condensed aromatics (10%) and aromatics (5%), while in dark controls, most identified compounds were condensed aromatics, suggesting these compounds are being partially oxidised primarily. Indeed, 89% of the condensed aromatics identified in dark controls were absent from the mass spectrum following exposure.

Furthermore, the average O/C of aromatics was shown to decrease for aromatics and aliphatics but increase for condensed aromatics remaining after photooxidation, suggesting condensed aromatics are more susceptible to oxidation.

These results strongly suggest sunlight is a key sink for BC in surface waters and that condensed aromatics are the class of compound primarily involved in these photo-reactions. However, the primary reaction pathway involved partial oxidation to less aromatic photoproducts with unknown susceptibility to further degradation. The authors highlight that there is a need to further investigate the reactivity of BC photoproducts to understand the role of sunlight as a sink for BC in the wider geochemical system.

To downloads the full article for free* click the link below:

Insights into the complete and partial photooxidation of black carbon in surface waters

Collin P. Ward, Rachel L. Sleighter, Patrick G. Hatcher, and Rose M. Cory
DOI: 10.1039/c3em00597f

*Access is free untill 23.04.14 through a registered RSC account – click here to register

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Free access to HOT articles

These HOT articles were recommended by our referees and are free to access for 4 weeks*

Bayesian uncertainty assessment of a semi-distributed integrated catchment model of phosphorus transport
Jostein Starrfelt and Øyvind Kaste
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00619K, Paper

Graphical abstract: Bayesian uncertainty assessment of a semi-distributed integrated catchment model of phosphorus transport

Blending remote sensing data products to estimate photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in the surface ocean
Leanne C. Powers and William L. Miller
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 792-806
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00617D, Paper

Graphical abstract: Blending remote sensing data products to estimate photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in the surface ocean

Wavelength and temperature-dependent apparent quantum yields for photochemical formation of hydrogen peroxide in seawater
David J. Kieber, Gary W. Miller, Patrick J. Neale and Kenneth Mopper
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 777-791
DOI: 10.1039/C4EM00036F, Paper

Graphical abstract: Wavelength and temperature-dependent apparent quantum yields for photochemical formation of hydrogen peroxide in seawater

Modelling phosphorus loading and algal blooms in a Nordic agricultural catchment-lake system under changing land-use and climate
Raoul-Marie Couture, Koji Tominaga, Jostein Starrfelt, S. Jannicke Moe, Øyvind Kaste and Richard F. Wright
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00630A, Paper

Graphical abstract: Modelling phosphorus loading and algal blooms in a Nordic agricultural catchment-lake system under changing land-use and climate

Association of nuisance filamentous algae Cladophora spp. with E. coli and Salmonella in public beach waters: impacts of UV protection on bacterial survival
Aubrey Beckinghausen, Alexia Martinez, David Blersch and Berat Z. Haznedaroglu
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00659J, Paper

Graphical abstract: Association of nuisance filamentous algae Cladophora spp. with E. coli and Salmonella in public beach waters: impacts of UV protection on bacterial survival

Degradation of organic pollutants in/on snow and ice by singlet molecular oxygen (1O*2) and an organic triplet excited state
Jonathan P. Bower and Cort Anastasio
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 748-756
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00565H, Paper

Graphical abstract: Degradation of organic pollutants in/on snow and ice by singlet molecular oxygen (1O*2) and an organic triplet excited state

Estimating hydroxyl radical photochemical formation rates in natural waters during long-term laboratory irradiation experiments
Luni Sun, Hongmei Chen, Hussain A. Abdulla and Kenneth Mopper
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 757-763
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00587A, Paper

Graphical abstract: Estimating hydroxyl radical photochemical formation rates in natural waters during long-term laboratory irradiation experiments

The importance of charge-transfer interactions in determining chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) optical and photochemical properties
Charles M. Sharpless and Neil V. Blough
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 654-671
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00573A, Critical Review

Graphical abstract: The importance of charge-transfer interactions in determining chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) optical and photochemical properties

A critical assessment of the photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments: defining our current understanding and identifying knowledge gaps
Jonathan K. Challis, Mark L. Hanson, Ken J. Friesen and Charles S. Wong
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,16, 672-696
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00615H, Critical Review

Graphical abstract: A critical assessment of the photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments: defining our current understanding and identifying knowledge gaps

*Free access to individuals is provided through an RSC Publishing personal account. It’s quick, easy and more importantly – free – to register!

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Grazing the surface of agricultural effects on water quality – impacts of in-stream cattle activity

By Ian Keyte, Doctoral Researcher at University of Birmingham and web writer for the Royal Society of Chemistry Environmental Team

The presence of cattle in close proximity to water courses can influence pollution levels in both direct and in-direct means. This study by researchers at Lancaster University reveals how these impacts can be best understood using simultaneous monitoring of both physical movement of cattle and water quality parameters.

Livestock farming in close proximity to streams can influence water quality in numerous ways. For example enhanced bank-side erosion and removal of vegetation can result in mobilization of sediments into water courses and increase turbidity. However, uncertainty exists regarding the extent to which the physical movement of cattle into and within the stream bed influences sediment resuspension and contribute to water quality degradation.

Previous studies assessing in-stream cattle impacts have focussed on short-term controlled events and often do not differentiate between bank-side and in-stream activity. The irregular behaviour of cattle means there is a need for high–frequency and simultaneous monitoring of cattle in-stream movement and water quality parameters over  sufficiently long periods.  This investigation by Julie Terry and co-workers at the Lancaster Environment Centre, UK attempts to assess the temporal relationship between physical in-stream activity of cattle and the level water quality.

This study investigated the physical movement of cattle in a stream and the impacts on suspended solid concentration (SSC) and observing a ‘signal response’ in an unfenced stretch of river in Cumbria, north-west England over a 4 month period. This involved the use of high resolution monitoring data derived using motion capture camera surveillance, taking over 31,000 images. At the same time, high resolution water quality data including turbidity (converted to SSC), water level and flow rate were also monitored.

It was shown that for the days when cattle were grazing nearby, of the instances that SSC exceeded 25 mg/l (the Freshwater Fish Directive guidance threshold), 58% could be attributed to the presence of cattle. However, only 3.6% of total sediment load in the stream was directly caused by cattle in-stream activity. Flow is still the main factor influencing total sediment transported, with cattle contributing a much smaller proportion. No relationship was noted between SSC response and absolute number of cattle feet in the water, attributed to the episodic nature of cattle-related sediment disturbances and the variability in stream flow.

Hysteresis analysis (modelling the relationship between concentration levels and discharge) demonstrated a lag time between the presence of cows in the stream and a critical amount of their contribution to SSC  with a reoccurring ‘first-flush’ of sediment created from non-cattle activity.  It was indicted, however that cattle can also provide considerable contribution indirectly e.g. due to erosion of stream banks.

Don’t let this work go in one ear and out the udder. It demonstrates the impact cattle can have on water quality in unprotected and unmonitored stretches of river and indicates the need for best practice measures for livestock management need to be adhered to closely in order to reduce maintain the ecological status of water courses. The authors have demonstrated the need for high-resolution monitoring data is to best understand and mitigate against these dangers and also outline directions for further work to compliment these results.

To access the full HOT Article for free*, click the link below:

Temporal dynamics between cattle in-stream presence and suspended solids in a headwater catchment
Julie A. Terry, Clare McW.H. Benskin, Emma F. Eastoe and Philip M. Haygarth
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2014,
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00686G

*Access is free for the next 4 weeks through a registered RSC account – click here to register

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