Archive for the ‘Hot Articles’ Category

Comparison of colorimetric methods for paper-based immunoassays

Shefali Lathwal and Hadley Sikes at Massachusetts Institute of Technology have carried out an in-depth study published in Lab on a Chip comparing different colorimetric paper-based immunoassays (where a positive or negative result is shown by the appearance or absence of a certain colour). The assays used were all for the detection of an enzyme found in P. falciparum in order to diagnose malaria. The authors sought to identify the optimal readout times for the different methods in order to prevent false positives.

HRP = P. falciparum histone rich protein 2; DAB = 3,3'-diaminobenzidine; TMB = 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine; ALP = alkaline phosphatase;NBT = nitro-blue tetrazolium;BCIP = 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate

Time course for colour generation on negative and positive surfaces using different colorimetric methods

One of the main purposes of this study was to compare a new paper-based assay that had recently been developed by Sikes in collaboration with George Whitesides at Harvard (Lab on a Chip, 2015) with other state-of-the-art methods.

The new method in question is a colorimetric assay that utilises a photo-initiated polymerisation reaction to amplify the signal when the P. falciparum enzyme is present. The reaction only occurs when the sample is being irradiated, so by using an automated timing switch the reaction time can be accurately controlled and no further signal amplification will take place once the light has been turned off. In contrast, other methods require accurate manual time keeping as they are thermally rather than photochemically controlled. This means that if the sample is left too long, it may lead to false positives due to colour forming in a negative sample.

This can be seen in the figure on the right, where positive and negative controls detected using the different colorimetric methods were photographed at various time points. All the methods tested had the same binding events in order to allow a fair comparison (i.e., all assay steps were the same apart from the detection method). A diagram included in the manuscript (Scheme 2) shows the key steps to all the assays, and how the colour is formed.

Three of the methods were enzymatic amplifications; for these reactions t=0 was taken as when the substrate solution was added to the surface of the paper. Another method was silver deposition, and t=0 was taken as when the silver enhancement solution was added to the surface. For the polymerisation-based amplification (PBA) method, the aqueous monomer was added to the surface and after illumination a basic solution was added, which led to formation of colour in the positive samples; t=0 was taken as when the basic solution was added.

In all cases other than the photo-controlled reaction, colour developed in the negative controls over time, leading to very similar results as in the positive controls. These assays are usually used at the point of care in resource limited settings, therefore the readouts are carried out by eye and there is often not a negative control to compare to. Instead, the result is compared to a colour chart, making it even easier to obtain a false positive if the readout time is not correct.

For the enzymatic amplification and silver deposition the optimal readout times varied considerably and in some cases the time window was very narrow, in order to prevent false positives. In the PBA reaction however, no colour developed in the negative control over 40 minutes, and at all time intervals there was a clear difference between the positive and negative controls. In addition to this, the visual limit of detection for the PBA reaction was much higher than that of the enzymatic amplifications and silver deposition.

This study is the first to compare multiple colorimetric methods for paper-based immunoassays with carefully controlled variables. Previously, different binding reagents, imaging techniques and methods of quantification have meant that meaningful comparisons could not be obtained. The results clearly highlight the benefits of using a photo-controlled reaction, where the reaction time can be carefully controlled with an automated timer without the requirement of accurate manual time keeping.

To download the full article for free* click the link below:

Assessment of colorimetric amplification methods in a paper-based immunoassay for diagnosis of malaria
Shefali Lathwal and Hadley D. Sikes
Lab Chip, 2016, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C6LC00058D
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About the webwriter

Claire Weston is a PhD student in the Fuchter Group, at Imperial College London. Her work is focused on developing novel photoswitches and photoswitchable inhibitors.

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*Access is free until 27/04/2016 through a registered RSC account – click here to register

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When a droplet of water meets with sound

Water is a simple element found in abundance throughout nature, and for many, its commonplace nature may mask its importance. Even a single droplet of water is of high value in the science world: when manipulated with sound waves, a water droplet can be used in a tremendous number of applications. For example, this simple technique can contribute to reducing the high costs of diagnosis tools, ensure the correct dosage of many drugs for effective treatment, and detect contaminants or pathogenic threats in food industry. This actuation of droplets using sound waves on the micron-scale is known as acoustofluidics.

Fig. 1 Screenshots of the particle-laden sessile drops were captured before (a-d) and after (e-h) the SAW exposures

The science behind the above-mentioned advances lies in the handling of droplets with surface acoustic waves (SAW), produced by an interdigitated transducer interacting with a sessile water droplet. This interaction leads the droplets to dissipate the energy absorbed from SAW, giving rise to acoustic streaming flow (ASF) and acoustic radiation force (ARF). As a result, sound waves with different amplitudes travel across the droplet and create micro-streams. Mixing, merging, and even sorting of the suspended particles are therefore enabled due to these micro-streams. To achieve this, an in-depth understanding of the generation of these micro-streams and their effect on the suspended particles are crucial for better controlled manipulation of these on-demand applications.

Luckily, scientists in the Flow Control Laboratory at KAIST have recently published a comprehensive study in Lab on a Chip on the fate of different sized microparticles inside a droplet of water actuated by SAW. In this work, for the first time, polystyrene microparticles were reported to go under four different unexplored modes at high frequencies. The elastic character of the polystyrene particles exhibits significantly different behaviors under SAW applied with different frequencies. For example, large particles were found to concentrate at the center of the droplet while the smaller ones form a ring structure around the periphery.

Fig. 2 Separation of red 3 and green 5 µm polystyrene particles inside a (a) 5 and (b) 10 µm droplets

Other intermediate modes include particle concentration at the side of the droplet and ring formation close to the droplet center: all dependent on the particle size, applied frequency, ASF, and ARF. Flow Control Laboratory further explored this interesting behavior using microparticles in the range of 1-30 µm at nominal frequencies of 10, 20, 80, and 133 MHz. Figure 1 shows before and after manipulation of the water droplets. Better yet, SAW applied at high frequencies allowed the separation of different-sized microparticles in a water droplet as seen in Figure 2.

For a real demonstration of what happens when a droplet of water meets with sound, the movie appended to the article and included below is well worth the watch. Thanks to the improved understanding of the physics behind the technique, this self-contained microcentrifuge technology seems promising to further widen our horizons in both clinical and biological applications.



To download the full article for free* click the link below:

Acoustofluidic particle manipulation inside a sessile droplet: four distinct regimes of particle concentration
Ghulam Destgeer, Hyunjun Cho, Byung Hang Ha, Jin Ho Jung, Jinsoo Park and Hyung Jin Sung
Lab Chip
, 2016, 16, 660-667
DOI: 10.1039/C5LC01104C, Paper

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About the webwriter

Burcu Gumuscu is a PhD researcher in BIOS Lab on a Chip Group at University of Twente in The Netherlands. Her research interests include development of microfluidic devices for second generation sequencing, organ-on-chip development, and desalination of water on the micron-scale.

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*Access is free until 02/05/2016 through a registered RSC account.

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New microfluidic system for intracochlear drug delivery

William Sewell at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School and Jeffrey Borenstein at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory in Massachusetts have developed an automated micropump device for direct delivery of drugs into the perilymph fluid within the cochlea. This has potential for use in the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss and would remove the toxicity issues that are common when drugs are administered systemically. This is one of the most common forms of hearing loss and is caused by damage to the sensory hair cells or to the auditory nerve.

Components of the device and process flow for one drug delivery cycle

Due to the small volumes of perilymph fluid within the cochlea (~ 0.2 mL) and the sensitivity of the ear, the authors have developed a reciprocating delivery system, where an accurate volume of the concentrated drug can be infused and, once given time to distribute, the same volume of fluid can be withdrawn, resulting in zero overall net increase in cochlear fluid. The specific design also minimised the dead volume present in the device in order to reduce the amount of pumping needed, and by incorporating capacitors, prevented high flow rates during pumping, which can lead to cochlear damage.

The authors emphasise the need for a device that is small and lightweight enough to be implanted near to the cochlea and that is also able to administer precise sub-microliter volumes of fluid over several days or months. The microfluidic device presented in Lab on a Chip has been fabricated onto a ~4 x 3 cm chip and is capable of delivering accurate and repeatable volumes of fluid over more than 1000 pump strokes. The authors highlight that by incorporating the device onto a head mount, this particular design could be used in animal models for preclinical drug characterisation, where extensive studies are required.

All the fluidic components of this system have been incorporated into the chip, so that, if battery operated, it could be used as a stand-alone device. In this design, a separate controller was used; however, it is stated that the control circuitry could also be miniaturised and incorporated into the chip, for use with a battery. Efforts were also made to minimise the power consumption of the pump for this purpose. The main components of the device are a drug reservoir, a fluid storage capacitor which contains artificial perilymph for flushing the system, an infuse-withdraw line, and multiple valves to control the different steps of the drug delivery process, as shown in the diagram.

Dose control was successfully demonstrated by loading the pump with fluorescein as the test drug and monitoring the fluorescence of the aliquots collected following different dosage schemes. Several studies were also carried out on guinea pigs using a glutamate receptor antagonist as the test drug. This compound reversibly suppresses compound action potentials (CAPs) in the cochlea – monitoring changes in CAP amplitude and threshold can be used to test for hearing loss.

The results showed that fully reversible hearing loss was induced and this was used to estimate the optimum wait time between infusion and withdrawal for the reciprocating delivery. The distribution of the drug in the ear was also monitored by measuring changes to CAPs at different frequencies and comparing these to the known tonotopic organisation of the cochlea. To test for cochlear damage, the authors monitored another hearing response (distortion product otoacoustic emission) that was not expected to change, and determined that there was no acute mechanical damage.

This drug delivery system has excellent potential for use in clinical and preclinical trials and also for long term treatment of hearing loss using existing drugs. The potential for battery operation is particularly important, and is an aspect that the authors are now focusing on for future work.


To download the full article for free* click the link below:

Microfabricated reciprocating micropump for intracochlear drug delivery with integrated drug/fluid storage and electronically controlled dosing
Vishal Tandon, Woo Seok Kang, Tremaan A. Robbins, Abigail J. Spencer, Ernest S. Kim, Michael J. McKenna, Sharon G. Kujawa, Jason Fiering,  Erin E. L. Pararas, Mark J. Mescher, William F. Sewell, Jeffrey T. Borenstein
Lab Chip, 2016, 16, 829-846
DOI: 10.1039/C5LC01396H

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About the webwriter

Claire Weston is a PhD student in the Fuchter Group, at Imperial College London. Her work is focused on developing novel photoswitches and photoswitchable inhibitors.

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*Access is free until 05/04/2016 through a registered RSC account.

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Optimising the conditions for biocrude formation using microfluidics

If the Lab on a Chip HOT articles are anything to go by, using microalgae as a feedstock for biofuel is definitely a flourishing research area.  Microalgae is a particularly attractive feedstock as it grows rapidly, has a large oil content, and can be grown pretty much anywhere.

David Sinton and co-workers at the University of Toronto have previously published in Lab on a Chip on this topic and have now reported their work on optimising the conditions for converting microalgae ‘biomass’ into crude biofuel (‘biocrude’). The process by which this is achieved is known as hydrothermal liquefaction. High temperatures and pressures are employed to break down the organic compounds from the biomass into the oils that make up biocrude.

a) Fluorescence images at increasing reaction time; b) Fluorescence and dark-field imaging of fluids at inlet and outlet.

The Sinton lab have developed a microfluidic chip in order to accurately control the reaction conditions of this process and also to study the effect of changing conditions on the biofuel that is formed. The continuous flow and small volume of the chip allow very fast heating of the algal slurry so reaction times can be accurately studied – in fact the heating rate achieved is the fastest reported to date. The slurry was analysed in situ by fluorescence imaging and changes to the fluorescence signature were monitored. Over the course of the reaction, the fluorescence signal due to chlorophyll disappeared and a new peak developed, indicating the formation of the aromatic compounds that are a characteristic component of crude oil and plant based oils.

Further analysis of the samples collected from the chip outlet found that the energy content (measured by the elemental composition) of the biocrude reached saturation after short reaction times – much before the fluorescence signal stopped changing. In addition to this, non-fluorescent droplets could be seen inside the reaction chamber, as shown in the diagram on the left, which were presumed to comprise of aliphatic oils. These findings indicate that analysis of the elemental composition alone is insufficient to measure chemical conversion to biocrude and methods such as fluorescence imaging should also be employed.

This work is the first example of using a microfluidic platform in hydrothermal liquefaction research and just goes to highlight the versatility of lab-on-a-chip systems.

To download the full article for free* click the link below:

Biomass-to-biocrude on a chip via hydrothermal liquefaction of algae
Xiang Cheng, Matthew D. Ooms and David Sinton
Lab Chip, 2016, 16, 256-260
DOI: 10.1039/C5LC01369K

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About the webwriter

Claire Weston is a PhD student in the Fuchter Group, at Imperial College London. Her work is focused on developing novel photoswitches and photoswitchable inhibitors.

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*Access is free through a registered RSC account until 29/02/2016.

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Differentiation of stem cells into beating cardiac tissues on paper!

The Biomicrofluidics System Group at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics in China have published an exciting paper in Lab on a Chip where they have used paper as a material to grow and differentiate human pluripotent stem cells.

Recently, there has been much research into generating biocompatible materials for creating microenvironments for the growth of stem cells, with the aim of improving their regenerative potential. Using paper as the material has several advantages over the conventional polymers – it is cheap and readily available, it is biocompatible, and the bundles of cellulose microfibers that make up paper provide a porous 3D structure.

Identification of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells on paper

The authors used three different types of paper to identify which were best for stem cell growth – printing paper, filter paper, and nitrocellulose membrane. The paper was pre-coated with the required gels and the stem cells were seeded onto the surface. Initially, the stem cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes prior to being added to the paper to test if the differentiated cells were able to grow on the different types of paper. The cells aggregated on both printing and filter paper and demonstrated spontaneous beating function, but not on the nitrocellulose membrane. These tissues also maintained their beating function for up to three months. The stem cells were then added to the paper prior to differentiation and the required cardiac differentiation procedures were carried out. The cells differentiated to the cardiomyocytes on all three paper types, however the cardiac-specific marker was only expressed weakly on the nitrocellulose membrane. Within two weeks a strong beating function was observed for the printing paper, but not the other paper types. The authors suggest the printing paper had a better pore size to support the cells than the filter paper, while the nitrocellulose membrane didn’t have a favourable microstructure to support growth of cardiac tissue.

Along with this article, there are some impressive videos showing the cardiac tissue beating that are well worth a watch!

To download the full article for free* click the link below:

Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beating cardiac tissues on paper
Li Wang, Cong Xu, Yujuan Zhu, Yue Yu, Ning Sun, Xiaoqing Zhang, Ke Feng and Jianhua Qin
Lab Chip,
2015, 15 , 4283-4290
DOI:
10.1039/C5LC00919G

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About the webwriter

Claire Weston is a PhD student in the Fuchter Group, at Imperial College London. Her work is focused on developing novel photoswitches and photoswitchable inhibitors.

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*Access is free through a registered RSC account until 18/12/2015  – click here to register

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Microscopic pumps made from trapped bacteria

Scientists in China have trapped bacteria in 3D-printed structures and used them to pump materials along customised paths.

Transporting materials in the microscopic world is complex. Conventionally, macroscopic pumps drive motion, but pumps are bulky and not ideal for miniaturisation. Now, Hepeng Zhang and colleagues at Shanghai Jiao Tong University have tackled this problem using native inhabitants of the microscopic world – motile bacteria. Not only are they already present in the media, but their energy conversion efficiency is estimated to be greater than existing man-made micro-motors.

Please visit Chemistry World to read the full article.

Using confined bacteria as building blocks to generate fluid flow
Zhiyong Gao, He Li, Xiao Chen and H. P. Zhang
Lab Chip, 2015, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C5LC01093D

*Access is free through a registered RSC account until 10 December 2015 – click here to register
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New method for studying microalgal growth

The device

The study and optimisation of microalgal growth is a hot topic at the moment due to the use of microalgae in many industrial processes, as well as its potential use as biofuel. Previously, I have written about a Lab on a Chip article from the Sinton lab on optimising microalgal growth by varying irradiance conditions.

Now Mingming Wu’s group, from Cornell University, have published an article focused on the effect of nitrogen concentration on cell growth rates. Wu has developed a platform based on agarose gel, as shown in the diagram. The nutrient media can flow through this gel while the cells can’t, maintaining separate microhabitats.

The authors decided to study the effect of nitrogen concentration gradients on the microalgae (C. reinhardtii), using ammonium as the nitrogen source. Nitrogen is essential for microalgae, as it is required for protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and ammonium is the preferred source for this particular strain.

An ammonium gradient was obtained by flowing ammonium-containing media through the source channel, and ammonium-free media through the sink channel (diagram C). As expected, increasing the concentration (within the micromolar range) increased the microalgal growth rates. Fluorescence imaging allowed the authors to quantify the growth kinetics using the Monod equation (similar to the Michaelis-Menten equation for enzyme kinetics). This is the first time this has been achieved for this particular microalgal strain with nitrogen concentration as the variable.

Another interesting find was that when the microalgae were subjected to millimolar ammonium concentrations, growth inhibition was seen. The standard medium for microalgae contains 7.5 mM ammonium, so these results suggest that these concentrations need to be reduced by several orders of magnitude in order to maximise growth rates!

Wu and co-workers have nicely demonstrated the capablilty of their agarose-based platform in quantifying growth kinetics and they highlight that it is 50-fold faster, and more cost effective, than the standard chemostat system. They also observed cell heterogeneity during their experiments and plan to use their system to study this further, along with other aspects of cellular behaviour such as quorum sensing.

To download the full article for free* click the link below:

An array microhabitat system for high throughput studies of microalgal growth under controlled nutrient gradients
Beum Jun Kim, Lubna V. Richter, Nicholas Hatter, Chih-kuan Tung, Beth A. Ahner and Mingming Wu
Lab Chip, 2015,15, 3687-3694
DOI: 10.1039/ C5LC00727E

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About the webwriter

Claire Weston is a PhD student in the Fuchter Group, at Imperial College London. Her work is focused on developing novel photoswitches and photoswitchable inhibitors.

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*Access is free until 19/10/2015 through a registered RSC account – click here to register

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A wireless chemical sensor for long-term monitoring

For effective treatment of many illnesses, in particular cancer, long-term monitoring of certain biomarkers is required. A needle probe with a chemically sensitive tip can be used, however this is invasive as it has to be inserted every time a new measurement is taken. There are also issues with tissue heterogenicity, as it is possible that changes in the measurements are solely due to a different local environment within the tissue.

Size of sensor

Previously the Cima lab at MIT reported an improved alternative for long-term in vivo monitoring. A capsule containing an NMR contrast agent was inserted in vivo and measurements were recorded using an MRI scanner. They have now done one better and eliminated the need of very costly MRI equipment by developing a small NMR sensor that simply requires a small external reader coil.

Both the sensor and reader contain a circuit with a coil and when both are in range magnetic inductance occurs, causing field amplification inside the chamber of the sensor.  This effectively means that a reading is taken only from tissue within the sensor, rather than surrounding tissue, and this is responsible for the high selectivity seen.

Different components of the system

In order to test their wireless sensor, Cima and coworkers separately measured pH and oxygen tension, both in vivo and in vitro. For the pH experiments, a polymer gel was used as the NMR contrast agent that had an exchangeable H atom with an appropriate pKa value. Using a tumor mouse model, pH readings were found to be lower when the sensor was nearer the tumor, as expected from the acidic nature of tumors. For the oxygen experiments, silicone was used as the contrast agent. The paramagnetic nature of molecular oxygen alters the relaxation time and this can therefore be used to determine the concentration of oxygen in the sensor.

From the success of their experiments, the authors conclude that they have demonstrated the flexibility of the sensor with these two measurements, and indeed there is huge potential for this NMR probe to greatly simplify in vivo monitoring.


To download the full article for free* click the link below:

Miniaturized, biopsy-implantable chemical sensor with wireless, magnetic resonance readout
C. C. Vassiliou, V. H. Liu and M. J. Cima
Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 3465-3472
DOI: 10.1039/C5LC00546A

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About the webwriter

Claire Weston is a PhD student in the Fuchter Group, at Imperial College London. Her work is focused on developing novel photoswitches and photoswitchable inhibitors.

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*Access is free until 01/10/2015  through a registered RSC account.

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A closer look at erythrocytes in motion

Blood analysis is usually the first step involved in the diagnosis of various diseases, such as typhoid and malaria. The biochemical and cellular equilibrium of blood is very sensitive to physiological variations occurring in the body at various disease stages. Thus, a fast and accurate examination of blood properties is essential. The morphological and biochemical changes in erythrocytes are used as  the pathological signatures of various diseases.

Flow cytometry is used  to examine blood cells, which requires hydrodynamic sheath flow alignment and fluorescence antibody labelling, making it time-consuming and expensive. Advanced light scattering techniques (such as digital holography) are often seen as suitable alternatives, as they provide fast and label-free measurements.

In a recent Lab On A Chip articleNetti et al. from the Italian Institute of Technology, in collaboration with scientists from Germany and Russia, presented a camera-based light scattering approach, coupled with a viscoelasticity -induced cell migration technique. This new system is used to characterise the morphological properties of erythrocytes in microfluidic flows.

They obtained light scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual living cells in microfluidic flows over a wide angular range and matched them with scattering simulations to characterise their morphological properties. A healthy erythrocyte diameter lies between 6 and 9 µm. The diameter values obtained from the experiment lie between 7 and 8.3 µm, which is in good agreement with the existing literature.

‘The results demonstrate the ability of a rapid and cost effective way to measure the average dimensions of an erythrocyte population which can be easily related to the health of a patient,’ concludes Netti.



To gain deeper insight into LSP acquisition and simulation, you can read the full article for free* by following the link below.
Optical signature of erythrocytes by light scattering in microfluidic flows
D. Dannhauser, D. Rossi, F. Causa, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, T. Wriedt, J. Hellmers, Y. Eremin, P. Ferraro and   P. A. Netti
Lab Chip, 2015,15, 3278-3285
DOI: 10.1039/C5LC00525F

*Access is free until 27/09/2015 through a registered RSC account.
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Cell pinballs in microfluidic channels

Researchers from the Kaneko Higashimori Lab at Osaka University and the Arai Lab at Nagoya University have observed an interesting phenomenon when studying red blood cells in microfluidic channels. Instead of flowing along the channel in a smooth motion as expected, some cells bounce back and forth between the channel walls in a pinball-like motion at much slower speed. In addition to these ‘cell pinballs’, there are also cells that move at a similar reduced speed, but don’t hit the channel walls.

This altered behaviour could have detrimental effects on microfluidic devices, caused by non-uniform movement of the cells in the channels. In order to prevent these potential problems, the authors have investigated the cause of this behaviour. They noted that cell pinballs only occur when the saline medium is hypotonic, as this causes the cells to inflate due to intake of water. By attaching microbeads to the cells and using a high speed camera, the motion of the cells were studied in more detail. The pinball cells rotated clockwise as they moved to the left of the channel and anticlockwise as they moved to the right of the channel (relative to the direction of the flow).

This observation, combined with the knowledge that the cells were inflated in the hypotonic solution, led the authors to believe that the pinball-motion was occurring due to both the shape of the red blood cell and contact with the channel walls. 3D images obtained using confocal microscopy showed that the upper and lower surfaces of the cells were flattened, confirming that the cells were in contact with the walls.

By studying the different possible deformations of the inflated red blood cells when subjected to flow, the authors found that the contact line (between the cell and wall) and the centre line of the cell were not the same. This explains both types of unexpected cell motion – if the contact line is downstream of the centre line, the cell is unstable to rotational motion and this causes it to move at an angle to the flow, leading to the pinball cells, whereas if the contact line is upstream of the centre line the cell is stable to rotational motion and no displacement occurs, leading to the slow moving non-pinball cells.

From these studies, the authors were able to propose mechanisms that successfully explained the two types of altered red blood cell behaviour in hypotonic solutions, and hopefully in the future this should allow microfluidic systems to be used which will avoid this pinball-motion occurring.



To download the full article for free* click the link below:
Cell pinball: phenomenon and mechanism of inertia-like cell motion in a microfluidic channel
Ryo Murakami, Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai, Makoto Kaneko, Shinya Sakuma and Fumihito Arai
Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 3307-3313
DOI: 10.1039/ c5lc00535c

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About the webwriter

Claire Weston is a PhD student in the Fuchter Group, at Imperial College London. Her work is focused on developing novel photoswitches and photoswitchable inhibitors.

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*Access is free until 06/09/2015  through a registered RSC account.

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