Author Archive

Poster Prize winner at RAPS 2014

Congratulations to Robert Deller, who was awarded the Polymer Chemistry prize for best poster at last week’s Recent Appointees in Polymer Science (RAPS) 2014 meeting.

Robert Deller (right) receives the Polymer Chemistry prize for best poster from RAPS committee chair Chris Holland

The winning poster, titled ‘Cryopreservation of cells using peptidomimetic macromolecules’, was based on Robert’s PhD project, which he recently completed at the University of Warwick under the supervision of Matthew Gibson, a former RAPS committee member. Robert’s research into cell cryopreservation led to publications in Biomaterials Science and Nature Communications – click on the link below to read the former:

Robert will soon be moving to the University of Bristol to take on a postdoc position in Adam Perriman’s research group.

RAPS 2014, which took place on 3rd-5th September at the University of Reading, was the 15th annual meeting organised by Recent Appointees in Polymer Science– a group set up to help polymer science researchers just starting out in their careers to forge links and networks for the future. This year’s meeting featured a diverse array of talks from early career researchers working in a variety of polymer-related fields, as well as talks from more established members of the polymer community eager to share advice and lessons learnt from their own careers.

For more information on RAPS- including how to join (for free!)- take a look at the RAPS website.

RAPS 2014
Delegates at RAPS 2014

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Polymer Chemistry Impact Factor rises to 5.37

We are delighted to announce that, according to the latest Journal Citation Reports®, Polymer Chemistry‘s Impact Factor* has increased to 5.368.

This is a great indication of the continued strength of Polymer Chemistry as it approaches its 5th anniversary, and we would like to take this opportunity to thank all our readers, authors, referees and board members for their support and engagement with the journal.

Even better news, the journal’s Immediacy Index# has risen to an impressive 1.713, the highest of all primary research journals in the Polymer Science category by some way.

Polymer Chemistry 2013 Immediacy Index

Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly after publication articles in a journal are cited.  Polymer Chemistry‘s high number indicates that articles are being cited very quickly, and is testament to the high visibilty and relevance of the articles we publish to the polymer community.

So, to make sure your next polymer synthesis paper is seen and cited by fellow polymer chemists, we recommend submitting it to Polymer Chemistry!


Polymer Chemistry wasn’t the only Royal Society of Chemistry journal to see an increase in its Impact Factor this year.  Find a full list of our journals and their 2013 Impact Factors in this blog post.

*The Impact Factor provides an indication of the average number of citations per paper. Produced annually, Impact Factors are calculated by dividing the number of citations in a year by the number of citeable articles published in the preceding two years.

#Immediacy Index is the average number of citations in a given year to papers published in that year.

Data based on 2013 Journal Citation Reports®, (Thomson Reuters, 2014).

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Polymer Chemistry is going weekly

From 2015, Polymer Chemistry will be moving to weekly publication. We will be increasing the number of issues per year from the current 24 to 48 whilst maintaing the high quality of the journal.

This is great news and a very positive way to mark Polymer Chemistry‘s fifth anniversary next year. It is because of the support we receive from the community that Polymer Chemistry has been going from strength to strength, and we would like to thank all of our readers, authors, referees and board members for their contributions to the journal.

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Ben Zhong Tang interviewed in Chemistry World

Polymer Chemistry Associate Editor Ben Zhong Tang was interviewed for Chemistry World about his work on alkyne polymers and aggregation induced emission.

Here are some of the highlights:

Your research on aggregation induced emission (AIE) received a lot of attention. Can you tell us more about it?

There are a lot of light emitting materials. This type of material, if you dissolve it to make a dilute solution, gives a very strong emission. However, for many of these kinds of dyes, if their concentration becomes high, their emission becomes weaker. This phenomenon has often been referred to as aggregation-caused quenching or ACQ for short. This is a problem in things like mobile phone displays, where the light emitting material is used as thin solid film. In the solid state, you know, concentration is the highest.

We have developed a family of luminogenic materials that behave in exactly the opposite way. When they are in solution, there is no emission, but when they aggregate, they emit very efficiently. It’s unusual and intriguing: previously, people have tried to solve the problem of ACQ by trying to separate the light emitting molecules. But now we have a system where the more it aggregates, the better

You’ve used these systems recently to make biosensors.

Yes, one very good application for these systems is in biology. One of the reasons for this is that light emitting species are aromatic rings, which are hydrophobic. In the body, we don’t have organic solvents: we only have water. Water is hydrophilic, so it isn’t compatible with the aromatic molecules. Traditional ACQ systems are not very good for biological applications due to the aggregate formation, but our systems work well in water, also owing to the formation of aggregates!

What current problem would you like to see polymer chemistry provide a solution to?

There are so many problems! In China, pollution is a big issue and this includes plastics. If we can come up with an economic way to recycle polymers back to monomers, then make them into new polymers in an economic way, we could reduce environmental pollution. Energy, of course, is another issue. One day we may have a very good polymer-based solar cell.

Read the full interview on the Chemistry World website: Ben Zhong Tang: Polymers for a bright future

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Polymer Chemistry Insight day at Warwick University

Last week, Nicola Wise and Liz Dunn from the Polymer Chemistry Editorial Office travelled to the University of Warwick to attend ‘Polymer Chemistry Insight day: Healthcare to Solar Cells’, a one-day symposium hosted by The Polymer Club.

Polymer Chemistry Editorial Board at The Polymer Club meeting

The Polymer Chemistry Editorial Board at Polymer Chemistry Insight day: Healthcare to Solar Cells

The event, which took place on the 22nd May 2014, featured talks from international experts encompassing all aspects and applications of polymer chemistry, from nanomedicine to photovoltaics. Speakers included Polymer Chemistry Editorial Board members Sebastien Perrier, Brent Sumerlin, Heather Maynard, Christopher Barner-Kowollik, Wei You, Eva Harth, Ben Zhong Tang and Bin Liu.

The Polymer Club was launched in 2013 by Warwick Polymer Chemistry to promote research and education in the areas of polymer and colloid chemistry by bringing together academic groups from Warwick University and industries with an interest in polymer and colloid science worldwide. Find out more here.

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Themed issue on Sustainable Polymers: replacing polymers derived from fossil fuels – now published

The Polymer Chemistry themed issue on Sustainable Polymers: replacing polymers derived from fossil fuels is online now. Guest Editor Stephen Miller (University of Florida) introduces the issue in his Editorial.

Here is a small selection of articles from the issue, which brings together the most recent reasearch achievements in the development of sustainable alternatives to replace classic polymers derived from fossil fuel feedstocks.

On the cover

MacroRAFT agents from renewable resources and their use as polymeric scaffolds in a grafting from approach Sanne De Smet, Sophie Lingier and Filip E. Du Prez

Review articles

The quest for sustainable polyesters – insights into the future Carla Vilela, Andreia F. Sousa, Ana C. Fonseca, Arménio C. Serra, Jorge F. J. Coelho, Carmen S. R. Freire and Armando J. D. Silvestre

Functionalization of cardanol: towards biobased polymers and additives Coline Voirin, Sylvain Caillol, Nilakshi V. Sadavarte, Bhausaheb V. Tawade, Bernard Boutevin and Prakash P. Wadgaonkar

Papers

Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers from bio-based poly(δ-decalactone) diols Donglin Tang, Christopher W. Macosko and Marc A. Hillmyer

Sustainable cycloolefin polymer from pine tree oil for optoelectronics material: living cationic polymerization of β-pinene and catalytic hydrogenation of high-molecular-weight hydrogenated poly(β-pinene) Kotaro Satoh, Atsuhiro Nakahara, Kazunori Mukunoki, Hiroko Sugiyama, Hiromu Saito and Masami Kamigaito

Bringing D-limonene to the scene of bio-based thermoset coatings via free-radical thiol–ene chemistry: macromonomer synthesis, UV-curing and thermo-mechanical characterization Mauro Claudino, Jeanne-Marie Mathevet, Mats Jonsson and Mats Johansson

Polyoxalates from biorenewable diols via Oxalate Metathesis Polymerization John J. Garcia and Stephen A. Miller

More articles can be downloaded here.


This issue is part of a joint collection on Sustainable Polymers, published in collaboration with Green Chemistry. Green Chemistry published their themed issue on Sustainable Polymers: reduced environmental impact, renewable raw materials and catalysis earlier this month. It was Guest Edited by Michael Meier (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany).

Take a look at the Green Chemistry themed issue here.


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Introducing our new Advisory Board members (2)

Shiyong Liu was born in Hubei Province, China, in 1972. He obtained his B. S. degree in 1993 and M. S. degree in 1996 from Wuhan University, majoring in environmental chemistry and polymer chemistry, respectively. After obtaining his Ph.D. degree in 2000 at Fudan University under the supervision of Prof. Ming Jiang, he spent three and a half years at University of Sussex and University of Delaware as a postdoctoral fellow, working with Prof. Steven P. Armes (currently at University of Sheffield) and Prof. Eric W. Kaler (currently at University of Minnesota), respectively. Since 2004, he has been a professor of Polymer Science and Engineering at the University of Science and Technology of China. He is recipient of 100 Talents Program (CAS, 2004), Distinguished Young Scholars Award (NSFC, 2004), Cheung Kong Professor Award (MOE, 2009), CCS-RSC Young Chemist Award (2010), and Young Scientist Award (CAS, 2012). He has served in the International Advisory Board for Macromol. Rapid Commun. and Macromol. Chem. Phys. (2012-) and the Editorial Advisory Board for Macromolecules (ACS, 2008-2010). He has served as the Head of Department of Polymer Science and Engineering since 2004 and the Director of CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry since 2010. He published over 190 peer-reviewed journal papers and 6 book chapters with a total citation of 6500 and an H-index of 47. His current research interests include the design and synthesis of functional polymeric materials, colloids, and stimuli-responsive polymeric assemblies with controlled properties for applications in imaging, sensing, diagnostics, and nanomedicines.


Timothy Long received his B. S. in 1983 from St. Bonaventure University, followed by his Ph.D. in 1987 from Virginia Tech. He spent several years as a research scientist at Eastman Kodak Company before returning to Virginia Tech as a professor in chemistry. He has been a faculty member in the department of chemistry since 1999 and recently served as Associate Director of Interdisciplinary Research and Education, Fralin Life Science Institute at Virginia Tech. He serves currently as the Associate Dean for Research and International Outreach in the College of Science at Virginia Tech.
He has received many prestigious honors in his field of polymer chemistry recently, including Chair of the IUPAC MACRO2012 Congress at Virginia Tech, the American Chemical Society (ACS) PMSE Cooperative Research Award and POLY Mark Scholar Award, as well as the Pressure Sensitive Tape Council (PSTC) Carl Dahlquist Award in 2011, Virginia Tech’s Alumni Award for Research Excellence (AARE) in 2010, 2009 ACS Fellow, and invited organizer of the Gordon Research Conference – Polymers, and Chair, ACS Polymer Division.
He has also assembled a successful interdisciplinary research group and has been awarded ~ $30M in research funding during his time with Virginia Tech. His group’s continuing research goal is to integrate fundamental research in novel macromolecular structure and polymerization processes with the development of high performance macromolecules for advanced technologies. Current research efforts focus on polyelectrolytes, ion-containing polymers, and supramolecular hydrogen bonding for emerging technologies including drug delivery, elastomers, water purification, adhesives, and energy storage.

Ramakrishnan completed his BSc from the University of Bombay, MSc from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and received his PhD from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, in 1988. After a two-year postdoctoral stint at the Corporate Research Laboratory of Exxon Research and Engineering Company at Annandale, New Jersey, he took up a faculty position in the Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, where he is currently the chair of the Division of Chemical Sciences. His research interests are in the design and development of novel polymerization methods, hyperbranched polymers, polymerizable surfactants, polymerization in ordered media, understanding and regulating conformation of synthetic macromolecules in solution and conjugated polymers. He is currently serves as one of the Associate Editors of Chemical Communications.

Martina Stenzel studied chemistry at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, before completing her PhD in 1999 at the Institute of Applied Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Stuttgart, Germany. After two years as postdoctoral researcher at UNSW, she took on a position as a lecturer at the University of New South Wales in 2002 and is now an ARC Future Fellow and Professor. Her research interest is focused on the synthesis of functional polymers with complex architectures such as glycopolymers and other polymers for biomedical applications, especially polymers with in-build metal complexes for the delivery of metal-based anti-cancer drugs. Martina Stenzel published more than 200 highly cited peer reviewed papers mainly on RAFT polymerization. She is an editor of the Australian Journal of Chemistry and also serves on several editorial advisory boards. She is currently a member of the ARC College of experts, which is the Australian Government funding agency. She received a range of awards including the 2011 Le Fèvre Memorial Prize, the 2013 Exxon Mobile award and a 2013 NSW Science and Engineering award. Martina enjoys spending time with her family exploring the Australian outdoors or the indoors (museums).

Per Zetterlund graduated from The Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (Sweden) in 1994 and obtained his Ph.D. at Leeds University (UK) in 1998.  He carried out postdoctoral research at Griffith University (Brisbane, Australia) and in 1999, he became Assistant Professor at Osaka City University (Japan).  In 2003, he moved to Kobe University (Japan), where he was promoted to Associate Professor in 2005.  Since 2009, he has worked at The Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design (CAMD) at The University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia), where he is currently a full Professor and co-Director of the Centre.  Prof Zetterlund has published around 130 peer-reviewed papers, mainly in the areas of (controlled/living) radical polymerization and polymeric nanoparticle synthesis using a variety of heterogeneous systems.

Wai-Yeung Wong was born in Hong Kong, and obtained his B.Sc.(Hons.) (1992) and Ph.D. (1995) degrees from The University of Hong Kong. He did his postdoctoral research with Prof. F. Albert Cotton at Texas A&M University in 1996 and Profs. Lord Lewis and Paul R. Raithby at the University of Cambridge in 1997. He joined Hong Kong Baptist University as an Assistant Professor in 1998, rising through the academic ranks to Chair Professor in early 2011. His research focuses on synthetic inorganic/organometallic/polymer chemistry and materials chemistry, with special emphasis on developing metallopolymers and metallophosphors with energy functions and photofunctional properties. He has a distinguished publication record of over 400 articles with his current H-index of 54. He has won the Royal Society of Chemistry Chemistry of the Transition Metals Award in 2010, FACS Distinguished Young Chemist Award in 2011, Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation Prize for Scientific and Technological Innovation and Second-class Prize of State Natural Science Award in China in 2013. He is currently the Associate Editor of Journal of Materials Chemistry C and Regional Editor of Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, and serves on the editorial/international advisory boards of numerous international journals including Polymer Chemistry, Dalton Transactions, Dyes and Pigments, Chemistry: An Asian Journal, Macromolecular Rapid Communications, Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics, etc. At present, he is the Chairman of Hong Kong Chemical Society and a Council Member of the Pacific Polymer Federation.


Yoshiki Chujo completed his PhD at Kyoto University in 1980 and then joined Nagoya University as an Assistant Professor in 1981. In 1983, he joined the group of Prof. J. E. McGrath at Virginia Tech in the USA as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow. He returned to Kyoto University as a Lecturer in 1986 and has been Professor of Polymer Chemistry there since 1994. His research interests focus on polymer synthesis, inorganic polymers, and polymeric hybrid materials. He is now a Vice-President of the Chemical Society of Japan.  He is a Leader of the national research project on “New Polymeric Materials Based on Element-Blocks” (2012-16).


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Introducing our new Advisory Board Members (1)

We asked some of our new Polymer Chemistry Advisory Board members to tell us a little more about themselves …

Franck D’Agosto first studied chemistry at the National School of Chemistry in Mulhouse (France). He then moved to Lyon (France) where he received his PhD in Polymer Chemistry from the University of Lyon on the design of multifunctional polymer architectures for the fixation of biological molecules. From 2001 to 2002, he was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Key Center for Polymer Colloids in Sydney (Australia). He developed strategies to obtain original latex particles by combining controlled radical polymerization and polymerization in dispersed media. In March 2002, he joined the Laboratory of Chemistry, Catalysis, Polymers and Processes (C2P2) at the University of Lyon as a CNRS Researcher. His research interests focus on polymerization in aqueous dispersed media and on amphiphilic block copolymers. He also develops a research on the design of reactive polyolefin building blocks using ethylene, coordination insertion polymerization and original chemistries.


Todd Emrick is a Professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, and Director of the National Science Foundation supported Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) on Polymers at UMass.  He completed his Ph.D. in organic chemistry at the University of Chicago in 1997, working on small molecule synthesis and the C-C coupling chemistry of strained hydrocarbons, then transitioned to polymer research (1997-2000) as a postdoctoral associate at U Cal Berkeley.  Emrick’s independent career at UMass began in 2001, and he has since been promoted to full professor, with active projects in the areas of new monomer and polymer synthesis, nanoscale polymer-based materials for therapeutics (gene and cancer drug delivery), electronically active polymers and nanocomposites, surfactants in solution, and environmentally friendly plastics and adhesives.  Emrick has published over 180 papers during his independent career, and is a Fellow of the Polymer Materials Science and Engineering (PMSE) Division of the American Chemical Society, and a 2013 Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors.


Thomas Epps is the Thomas and Kipp Gutshall Associate Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of Delaware (UD) with a joint appointment in Materials Science and Engineering.  He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in Chemical Engineering from MIT in 1998 and 1999, respectively.  He received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Minnesota in 2004; he then joined NIST as a National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow.  Dr. Epps joined UD in the summer of 2006.
His research interests include nanostructured assemblies for targeted drug delivery, polymeric materials for bio-separation and ion-conduction membranes, catalytic applications, and surface responsive polymer films.  Dr. Epps has received several honors and awards including: the Sigma Xi Young Investigator Award (2014); the Martin Luther King, Jr. Visiting Professor of Chemistry at MIT (2012); the UD Alison Society, Gerard J. Mangone Young Scholars Award (2011); the DuPont Young Professor Grant Award (2010); the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) (2009); the Air Force Young Investigator Award (2008); and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER Award (2007) among others.  Dr. Epps also is on the editorial advisory boards of Macromolecules, ACS Macro Letters and, now, Polymer Chemistry.

Nikos Hadjichristidis received his BSc from the University of Athens, Greece, and his PhD from the University of Liege, Belgium. He did postdoctoral research at the National Research Council of Canada and the University of Akron. In 1988 he became Professor and in 2010 Emeritus Professor at the University of Athens, Department of Chemistry. Since September 2011 he has been a Professor of Chemical Sciences at KAUST.
He has received many awards including: the ACS PMSE A. K. Doolittle Award (2003), the International Award of the Society of Polymer Science, Japan (SPSJ, 2007), the ACS PMSE Cooperative Research Award (2010) and the ACS, Rubber Division, Chemistry of Thermoplastic Elastomers Award (2011).  He has Honorary Degrees (Doctorate Honoris Causa) from the University Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela (2010) and the University of Ioannina, Greece (2010). His research interest focuses mainly on the synthesis and properties of model polymers and he has published more than 450 papers in referred scientific journals, 16 patents, four books (editor), and is the author of one book on Block Copolymers (Wiley 2003).

Feihe Huang was born in China in 1973. He obtained his degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VT) under the guidance of Prof. Harry W. Gibson in March 2005. Then he joined Prof. Peter J. Stang’s group at University of Utah as a postdoc. Now he is Qiushi Chair Professor at Zhejiang University. His current main research interests are supramolecular polymers and pillararenes. The awards he received up to now include the William Preston Award for his MS thesis from VT, the 2004 Chinese Government Award for Outstanding Self-Financed Students Abroad, The Sigma Xi Research Award for PhD Degree Candidates from VT Chapter of Sigma Xi Research Society, Outstanding PhD Dissertation Award from VT, Thieme Chemistry Journals Award, the Outstanding Recent Graduate Alumnus Award from VT, and Humboldt Fellowship for Experienced Researchers. His publications have been cited more than 4575 times with an h-index of 41. He has been a guest editor of Chem Soc Rev, Acc Chem Res, Chem Rev, and Chem Commun. He sits on the Advisory Boards of Chem Soc Rev (2012-), Chem Commun (2012-), Acta Chim Sinica (2012-), Macromolecules (2014-), ACS Macro Lett (2014-), and now Polym Chem.

Ming Jiang graduated from the Chemistry Department at Fudan University, China in 1960. Since then he has served within the Chemistry, Materials and Macromolecular Science Departments at Fudan University as an assistant, lecturer, and then as associate professor. He was promoted to professor in 1988. Professor Jiang was also a visiting scientist at the University of Liverpool, UK from 1979 to 1981.
Professor Jiang was elected Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2005. He has been a Fellow of Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC) since 2009. He has published over 250 papers in polymer science. He is the deputy-chief-editor of the Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities and also a board member of Macromolecular Rapid Communications. He is also director of the Academy Committee of Key National Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers. His research is mainly in the physical chemistry of polymers and supramolecular chemistry with emphasis on macromolecular self-assembly.

UPDATE: Find more Advisory Board member profiles HERE

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Polymer Chemistry Insight day: Healthcare to Solar Cells

On Thursday 22nd May 2014, the Warwick Polymer Club will be hosting a one-day international meeting ‘Polymer Chemistry: Healthcare to Solar Cells‘.
Held at the University of Warwick, this is an excellent opportunity to hear talks from international experts in the field of polymer chemistry, including:
  • Sebastien Perrier (University of Warwick)
  • Brent Summerlin (University of Florida)
  • Professor Wenping Hu (ICCAS, Beijing)
  • Professor Heather Maynard (UCLA)
  • Professor Christopher Barner-Kowollik (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT))
  • Professor Wei You (University of North Carolina)
  • Professor Eva Harth (Vanderbilt University)
  • Professor Benzhong Tang (The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST))

Topics will cover the latest developments in the sector in all aspects of healthcare to solar cells, ranging from therapeutic aspects/nanomedicine to OPV’s/conducting polymers.

Better yet, the event is FREE to attend! And, if required, overnight accommodation is available in the University’s award winning on-campus conference accommodation.

To attend, please register on the Polymer Club website. More information about the event and speaker biographies are also available here.
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Brent Sumerlin interviewed in Chemistry World

Polymer Chemistry Associate Editor Brent Sumerlin has been interviewed in Chemistry World! He talks to Laura Howes about his work developing smart polymers for delivering insulin to treat people with diabetes.

Here’s a sneak preview…

How would you describe your work?

We are synthetic polymer chemists and all of the materials we’re interested in are smart materials. They’re not really smart – they can only do one thing – but they do that one thing really well.

Usually they’re block copolymers in solution and they self-assemble or dissociate depending on the conditions around them like pH or temperature. We want to make polymers that respond to their environment and can be useful for things like drug delivery.

Is your work mainly focussed on drug delivery?

Yes, mainly. There are two ways of thinking about it. One would be to specifically release a compound in one environment under a specific set of conditions. Another way to think about it would be to instead encapsulate something under specific conditions. We haven’t done work in that area directly but it is common to use similar materials for, say, wastewater remediation. In both cases you’re trying to encapsulate something hydrophobic, it’s just whether you want to release it or not.

Do you have particular biological targets or problems you want to solve?

Most of our interest has been in the area of diabetes, and I think that’s what sets our work apart from a lot of other smart polymer chemists. Most people are working on cancer but diabetes is also a problem of growing importance. The polymers we work with respond to sugar, and under a high concentration of sugar they become hydrophilic. So if you can make an aggregate that’s held together by these polymers, when there’s a lot of sugar around, they become water-soluble and dissolve, potentially releasing insulin from inside. We like this approach because it combines the glucose monitoring and insulin production into one feedback step.

Read more about Brent’s research, and find out how he coped with moving his research group 1000 miles across the US, in Brent Sumerlin: Searching for a sweet response.

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