In this HOT Perspective article **Ting-Chao Chou** from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York presents his vision for a new era of smarter, greener biomedical research and drug discovery.

The** **algorithm of the **median-effect equation** based on the **mass-action law,** along with experimental design and computer simulation, should allow a significant reduction in the number of data points required to yield useful bioinformatics on the relationship between dose and effect. He poses that a theoretical minimum of a mere two data points are required to construct dose-effect curves – if they are accurately determined. This unified theory, he believes, should pave the way for more efficient, cost-effective research and ethical clinical trials.

This HOT article is featured on the front cover of our latest issue – **Issue 5**. Why not take a look – it’s currently** free** to access:

**The mass-action law based algorithms for quantitative econo-green bio-research**

Ting-Chao Chou

*Integr. Biol*., 2011, **3**, 548-559

DOI: 10.1039/C0IB00130A

This article is a final conclusion and purpose of my over 40 years theoretical work since I was a graduate student at Yale University. This work received little attention in the beginning since this approach of “merging the mass-action law with mathematical induction-deduction” seemingly has no precedence in biomedical science. Now, one article alone, by Chou TC and Talalay P (Adv. Enz. Regul. 22: 27-55, 1984), has been cited 2,286 times in over 460 different biomedical journals (www.researcherid.com/rid/B-4111-2009). I always apply my median-effect theory in my experimental work which is proven to be efficient, effective, and low-cost which I called it the “econo-green bio-research”.

I welcome the voice of support for this unified theory since it is rigorously derived and has been applied in over 40 disciplines in biomedical sciences. I also welcome the credible challenges from whom who can prove that my equations are wrong or who can provide a better alternative. If my theory is wrong, sooner or later, someone would eventually prove it. But I have strong confidence in my theory since the physico-chemical equations, such as Michaelis-Menten, Hill, Scatchard and Henderson-Hasselbalch equations, can be obtained from the median-effect equation of the mass-action law. If the median-effect equation is wrong, then the textbooks of biochemistry and biophysics need to be revised. Instead of messing around the complicated pathways with a lot of branches and arrows, I prefer to ask fundamental simple questions that have been overlooked by most scientists: What is the proper way to draw a dose-effect curve; What is the additive effects; What is synergy; What is the meaning of “dynamic” in pharmacodynamics? Interestingly, all these questions can be solved by the median-effect principle of the mass-action law.

These simple fundamental questions are equally applicable to single and multiple entities and the first-order and higher-order dynamics and the answers have been rigorously proven mathematically. It should have the far reaching effects in bio-medical sciences in measurable ways. Obviously, the contemporary basic biomedical research is too divergent in phenomenal aspects and not “basic” enough. We need to rely on the “fundamentals” to integrate and to solve the general, complicated biomedical problems.