Archive for the ‘News’ Category

Professor Joan Brennecke elected to the National Academy of Engineering

Joan Brennecke receiving her certificate of membership to the National Acadamy of EngineeringGreen Chemistry Advisory Board member Joan Brennecke, the Keating-Crawford Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of Notre Dame, USA, has been elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering.  This honour has been awarded “for innovation in the use of ionic liquids and supercritical fluids for environmentally benign chemical processing.” 

Election to the National Academy of Engineering is one of the highest professional distinctions that can be awarded to an engineer.  An Academy membership honours those who have made outstanding contributions to engineering research, practice or education.

Green Chemistry would like to extend our warmest congratulations to Professor Brennecke on this achievement.

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From Waste to Wealth Using Green Chemistry

On Thursday the 27th September, Professor James Clark from the University of York, UK, gave a public lecture at The Chemistry Centre in London on “From Waste to Wealth using Green Chemistry“.

The world today faces the fundamental issues of increasing waste but decreasing resources as it tries to cope with the ever increasing consumption of a growing population.  Many of the raw resources and elements needed for the manufacture of important products used everyday are now running out.  For example, in our search for ‘carbon-free’ products we have then created additional problems by significantly depleting the world’s resource of other elements, such as germanium.  James Clark answering questions after his talk at The Chemistry CentreWe generate so much waste, but what do we do with it?  How can we deal with our waste more efficiently?

The only way these problems can be met and dealt with is through a fundamentally different approach to the way we consume resources.  Professor Clark’s lecture shows how by considering our waste as an opportunity rather than a problem, we can fully move towards a truly sustainable resource consumption model and give our children some hope for the future.

The event, sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline, was strongly attended by an audience of 100 people from a broad range of different backgrounds.  The event generated lots of questions and some lively debates which continued long after the lecture had ended. 

Missed the lecture?  You can watch Professor Clark’s lecture in full on The Reaction website!

Professor Clark is the founding Editor of Green Chemistry and is also one of the Editors of the RSC Green Chemistry Book Series – find out more here.

You may also be interested in a few of Professor Clark’s recent Green Chemistry articles – free to access until the 9th November 2012:

Preparation and characterisation of bioplastics made from cottonseed protein, H.-B. Yue, Y.-D. Cui, P. S. Shuttleworth and James H. Clark, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2009-2016

Thermosetting resin based on epoxidised linseed oil and bio-derived crosslinker, Nontipa Supanchaiyamat, Peter S. Shuttleworth, Andrew J. Hunt, James H. Clark and Avtar S. Matharu, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 1759-1765

A quantitative comparison between conventional and bio-derived solvents from citrus waste in esterification and amidation kinetic studies, James H. Clark, Duncan J. Macquarrie and James Sherwood, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 90-93

Switchable adhesives for carpet tiles: a major breakthrough in sustainable flooring, Peter S. Shuttleworth, James H. Clark, Robert Mantle and Nigel Stansfield, Green Chem., 2010, 12, 798-803

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Top ten most accessed articles in August

This month sees the following articles in Green Chemistry that are in the top ten most accessed:-

L-Proline-promoted three-component reaction of anilines, aldehydes and barbituric acids/malononitrile: regioselective synthesis of 5-arylpyrimido[4,5-b]quinoline-diones and 2-amino-4-arylquinoline-3-carbonitriles in water
Ali Khalafi-Nezhad, Samira Sarikhani, Elham Shaikhi Shahidzadeh and Farhad Panahi
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35765H, Paper

Multicomponent reactions in unconventional solvents: state of the art
Yanlong Gu
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35635J, Critical Review

KOH-mediated transition metal-free synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines
Jian Xu, Rongqiang Zhuang, Lingling Bao, Guo Tang and Yufen Zhao
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35714C, Communication

A Convenient Guide to Help Select Replacement Solvents for Dichloromethane in Chromatography
Joshua P. Taygerly, Larry M. Miller, Alicia Yee and Emily A. Peterson
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC36064K, Paper

One-step hydrogenolysis of glycerol to biopropanols over Pt-H4SiW12O40/ZrO2 catalysts
Shanhui Zhu, Yulei Zhu, Shunli Hao, Hongyan Zheng, Tao Mo and Yongwang Li
Green Chem., 2012,14, 2607-2616, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35564G, Paper

Experimental and theoretical studies on imidazolium ionic liquid-promoted conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
Yu-Nong Li, Jin-Quan Wang, Liang-Nian He, Zhen-Zhen Yang, An-Hua Liu, Bing Yu and Chao-Ran Luan
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35845J, Paper

Design and synthesis of benzylpyrazolyl coumarin derivatives via a four-component reaction in water: investigation of the weak interactions accumulating in the crystal structure of a signified compound
Partha Pratim Ghosh, Gargi Pal, Sanjay Paul and Asish R. Das
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC36021G, Communication

A new route of CO2 catalytic activation: syntheses of N-substituted carbamates from dialkyl carbonates and polyureas
Jianpeng Shang, Shimin Liu, Xiangyuan Ma, Liujin Lu and Youquan Deng
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC36043H, Paper

Pd-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica: an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for Hiyama and Sonogashira couplings, and cyanation reactions
Arindam Modak, John Mondal and Asim Bhaumik
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35820D, Paper

PEG-functionalized ionic liquids for cellulose dissolution and saccharification
Shaokun Tang, Gary A. Baker, Sudhir Ravula, John E. Jones and Hua Zhao
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35631G, Paper

Why not take a look at the articles today and blog your thoughts and comments below.

Fancy submitting an article to Green Chemistry? Then why not submit to us today or alternatively email us with your suggestions.

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Issue 10 of Green Chemistry now online!

The latest issue of Green Chemistry is now available to read online.

Front cover of Green Chemistry, issue 10, 2012The front cover of issue 10 highlights work by Ulrich Schwaneberg and colleagues from RWTH Aachen University, nova-Institut GmbH and the University of Hamburg, Germany.  The aim of this study was to generate re-engineered cellulases which can match application demands in biorefineries and avoid expensive downstream processing.  The team developed a fluorescence-based high throughput screening method for directed evolution of cellulases, in an effort to improve the activity and resistance of a cellulase in aqueous solutions of deep eutectic solvents and concentrated seawater.  This work opens up new opportunities for the development of cellulases as catalysts for the depolymerisation of cellulose under mild conditions.

Reengineering CelA2 cellulase for hydrolysis in aqueous solutions of deep eutectic solvents and concentrated seawater, Christian Lehmann, Fabrizio Sibilla, Zaira Maugeri, Wolfgang R. Streit, Pablo Domínguez de María, Ronny Martinez and Ulrich Schwaneberg, Green Chem., 2012, 3, 2719-2726

The inside front cover of this issue features work by Eugene Chen and co-workers from Colorado State University who present an efficient process for upgrading 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 5,5′-di(hydroxymethyl)furoin (DHMF), a promising intermediate for kerosene/jet fuel.  The reaction was performed in an ionic liquid [EMIM]OAc and catalysed by N-heterocyclic carbenes.  The process could be completed in 1 hour at an ambient atmosphere and 60-80°C, which are industrially favourable conditions.

Organocatalytic upgrading of the key biorefining building block by a catalytic ionic liquid and N-heterocyclic carbenes, Dajiang (D. J.) Liu, Yuetao Zhang and Eugene Y.-X. Chen, Green Chem., 2012, 3, 2738-2746

Stay up-to-date with the latest news and content in Green Chemistry by registering for our free table of contents alerts.

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Solvent guide to replce DCM in chromatography

A quick bench-top solvent guide reference has been developed in order for alternative solvents to dichloromethane (DCM) to be selected for separation of a variety of organic molecules.

Chromatography is widely used by synthetic chemists for purification as it can be broadly applied to a vast range of compounds and is very adaptable.  However, the largest contributor of chlorinated solvent waste in the medicinal chemistry industry is chromatography – primarily DCM.  Given the significant human and environmental toxicities associated with DCM, reduction or ideally replacement of this solvent is important.

Guide to select alternative solvent systems to DCM for ellution of neutral compoundsHere, Joshua Taygerly, Emily Peterson and colleagues from Amgen Inc. and Northeastern University, USA have developed a guide which aims to help synthetic chemists find suitable and more environmentally friendly alternatives to a DCM-solvent system for chromatographic purification of compounds.  The authors selected several ‘drug-like’ molecules which reflected the types of molecules regularly prepared and purified, and separated these into three categories – acidic, basic and neutral (where ‘neutral’ refers to compounds without a carboxylic acid or amine functionality).  They tested several alternative solvent systems and assembled a figure which allows the scientist to find the DCM solvent system that would have been applied to a particular molecule and follow it up vertically to find potentially equivalent systems (see the guide for neutral compounds right).

The primary use of this guide is to provide chemists with a quickly identifiable starting point for selecting alternative solvent systems to DCM.

You can read this article for free until the 17th October 2012!

A convenient guide to help select replacement solvents for dichloromethane in chromatography, Joshua P. Taygerly, Larry M. Miller, Alicia Yee and Emily A. Peterson, Green Chem., 2012, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC36064K

You may also be interested in these articles relating to solvent selection – free to access for 2 weeks:

Searching for green solvents, Philip G. Jessop, Green Chem., 2011, 13, 1391-1398

Expanding GSK’s solvent selection guide – embedding sustainability into solvent selection starting at medicinal chemistry, Richard K. Henderson, Concepción Jiménez-González, David J. C. Constable, Sarah R. Alston, Graham G. A. Inglis, Gail Fisher, James Sherwood, Steve P. Binks and Alan D. Curzons, Green Chem., 2011, 13, 854-862

Green chemistry tools to influence a medicinal chemistry and research chemistry based organisation, Kim Alfonsi, Juan Colberg, Peter J. Dunn, Thomas Fevig, Sandra Jennings, Timothy A. Johnson, H. Peter Kleine, Craig Knight, Mark A. Nagy, David A. Perry and Mark Stefaniak, Green Chem., 2008, 10, 31-36

Stay up-to-date with the latest news and content in Green Chemistry by registering for our free table of contents alerts.

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Top ten most accessed articles in July

This month sees the following articles in Green Chemistry that are in the top ten most accessed:-

Multicomponent reactions in unconventional solvents: state of the art
Yanlong Gu
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35635J, Critical Review

Direct conversion of carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using Sn-Mont catalyst
Jianjian Wang, Jiawen Ren, Xiaohui Liu, Jinxu Xi, Qineng Xia, Yanhong Zu, Guanzhong Lu and Yanqin Wang
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35699F, Paper

A catalyst-free reaction in water: synthesis of benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-4(1H)-one derivatives
Junhua Liu, Min Lei and Lihong Hu
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35745C, Paper

Evolution of asymmetric organocatalysis: multi- and retrocatalysis
Raffael C. Wende and Peter R. Schreiner
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35160A, Critical Review

KOH-mediated transition metal-free synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines
Jian Xu, Rongqiang Zhuang, Lingling Bao, Guo Tang and Yufen Zhao
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35714C, Communication

Paul Anastas and the Robin Hood Question
Martyn Poliakoff
Green Chem., 2012,14, 2089-2090, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC90027K, Editorial

Catalyst-free hydroarylation of in situ generated ortho-quinone methide (o-QM) with electron rich arenes in water
Atul Kumar, Mukesh Kumar and Maneesh Kumar Gupta
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35741K, Communication

Water mediated Heck and Ullmann couplings by supported palladium nanoparticles: importance of surface polarity of the carbon spheres
Ahmed Kamal, Vunnam Srinivasulu, B. N. Seshadri, Nagula Markandeya, A. Alarifi and Nagula Shankaraiah
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC16430B, Paper

Facile construction of densely functionalized 4H-chromenes via three-component reactions catalyzed by L-proline
Minghao Li, Biao Zhang and Yanlong Gu
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35668F, Paper

Bromination of aromatic compounds using an Fe2O3/zeolite catalyst
Yuta Nishina and Keishi Takami
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35821B, Communication

Why not take a look at the articles today and blog your thoughts and comments below.

Fancy submitting an article to Green Chemistry? Then why not submit to us today or alternatively email us with your suggestions.

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Issue 9 of Green Chemistry now online!

The latest issue of Green Chemistry is now available to read online.

The front cover of issue 9 features work by Tomislav Frišĉić from the University of Cambridge (UK) and McGill University (Canada) and colleagues from Croatia, the UK and USA.  The authors discuss the concept of a solvent-free research laboratory which would eliminate the use of solvents for both chemical synthesis and the structural characterization.  The team used the mechanochemical click coupling of isothiocyanates and amines as the model reaction using an electrical, digitally controllable laboratory mill.  49 different thiourea derivatives were synthesized and all products were characterised by X-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

A model for a solvent-free synthetic organic research laboratory: click-mechanosynthesis and structural characterization of thioureas without bulk solvents, Vjekoslav Štrukil, Marina D. Igrc, László Fábián, Mirjana Eckert-Maksić, Scott L. Childs, David G. Reid, Melinda J. Duer, Ivan Halasz, Cristina Mottillo and Tomislav Friščić, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2462-2473

The inside front cover of this issue highlights work by Chan Beum Park and co-workers from KAIST and Seoul National University, Korea, who report the synthesis of graphene-wrapped CuO hybrid materials by CO2mineralization.  These materials were created from CoCO3 microspheres mineralized on graphene oxide nanosheets and were shown to be promising materials for lithium ion batteries.  The hybrid materials demonstrated greatly enhanced stability and recyclability of the CuO anode for the Li ion batteries.

Synthesis of graphene-wrapped CuO hybrid materials by CO2 mineralization, Jong Wan Ko, Sung-Wook Kim, Jihyun Hong, Jungki Ryu  Kisuk Kang and Chan Beum Park, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2391-2394

These articles are both free to access for 6 weeks

Keep up-to-date with the latest content in Green Chemistry by registering for our free table of contents alerts!

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Issue 8 of Green Chemistry now online

The latest issue of Green Chemistry is now available online!

The front cover of issue 8 features work by Matthew Fuchter and co-workers from Imperial College London and Pfizer Ltd in Sandwich.  The team developed a route to give allylic alcohols from α,β-unsaturated ketones using calcium triflate to replace cerium(III) chloride.  This procedure also accomplished the regioselective 1,2-reduction of challenging α,β-unsaturated ketones such as 2-cyclopentenone with very good selectivity, and is suitable for the stereoselective reduction of α,β-aziridinyl ketones.

Lanthanide replacement in organic synthesis: Luche-type reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones in the presence of calcium triflate, Nina V. Forkel, David A. Henderson and Matthew J. Fuchter, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2129-2132.

The inside front cover highlights work by Man Bock Gu and colleagues from Korea University in Seoul, who report the carbonic anhydrase-assisted formation of biomineralized calcium carbonate crystalline composites (CCCCs).  These materials were shown to be effective biocatalysts retaining 43% of the free carbonic anhydrase esterase activity.  The catalysts were stable for more than 50 days at room temperature, could be recovered easily using magnet-based separation and retained their activity over 10 repeated usages.

Carbonic anhydrase assisted calcium carbonate crystalline composites as a biocatalyst, Ee Taek Hwang, Haemin Gang, Jinyang Chung and Man Bock Gu, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2216-2220

These articles are free to access for 6 weeks

Keep up-to-date with the latest content in Green Chemistry by registering for our free table of contents alerts!

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Top ten most accessed articles in June

This month sees the following articles in Green Chemistry that are in the top ten most accessed:-

Catalytic conversion of biomass using solvents derived from lignin
Pooya Azadi, Ronald Carrasquillo-Flores, Yomaira J. Pagán-Torres, Elif I. Gürbüz, Ramin Farnood and James A. Dumesic
Green Chem., 2012,14, 1573-1576, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35203F, Communication

An efficient copper-catalyzed formation of highly substituted pyrazoles using molecular oxygen as the oxidant
Mamta Suri, Thierry Jousseaume, Julia J. Neumann and Frank Glorius
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35476D, Paper

Multicomponent reactions in unconventional solvents: state of the art
Yanlong Gu
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35635J, Critical Review

Selective conversion of microcrystalline cellulose into hexitols on nickel particles encapsulated within ZSM-5 zeolite
Guanfeng Liang, Haiyang Cheng, Wei Li, Limin He, Yancun Yu and Fengyu Zhao
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35685F, Communication

An efficient protocol for palladium-catalyzed ligand-free Suzuki-Miyaura coupling in water
Manoj Mondal and Utpal Bora
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35401B, Communication

Evolution of asymmetric organocatalysis: multi- and retrocatalysis
Raffael C. Wende and Peter R. Schreiner
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35160A, Critical Review

TBHP/I2-promoted oxidative coupling of acetophenones with amines at room temperature under metal-free and solvent-free conditions for the synthesis of a-ketoamides
Xiaobin Zhang and Lei Wang
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35489F, Communication

Copper-catalyzed reductive amination of aromatic and aliphatic ketones with anilines using environmental-friendly molecular hydrogen
Svenja Werkmeister, Kathrin Junge and Matthias Beller
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35565E, Communication

A simple and facile Heck-type arylation of alkenes with diaryliodonium salts using magnetically recoverable Pd-catalyst
Buchi Reddy Vaddula, Amit Saha, John Leazer and Rajender S. Varma
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35673B, Communication

Efficient catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid: a key step in biomass conversion
József M. Tukacs, Dávid Király, Andrea Strádi, Gyula Novodarszki, Zsuzsanna Eke, Gábor Dibó, Tamás Kégl and László T. Mika
Green Chem., 2012, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35503E, Paper

Why not take a look at the articles today and blog your thoughts and comments below.

Fancy submitting an article to Green Chemistry? Then why not submit to us today or alternatively email us your suggestions.

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Putting Green Chemistry into Mobile Apps to Communicate Globally

Screenshot of the Green Solvents App for iPad

Screenshot of the Green Solvents App for iPad

Several new mobile applications (Apps) have been recently released for the Apple iOS platform which incorporate green chemistry concepts. This represents a highly novel way to communicate science and bring green chemistry to a bigger audience, which has not previously been appreciated. We certainly sense there is an untapped audience for these types of applications due to the large number of people who now own a mobile device across all demographics. Green Chemistry related information is generally proprietary and papers on the topic are commonly behind paywalls. Making the information freely available or at low cost is a paradigm shift.

For example, a recent consortium organized by the American Chemical Society Green Chemistry InstituteTM (ACS GCI) Pharmaceutical Roundtable1 currently involves 14 pharmaceutical companies, and has developed a solvent selection guide that is publicly available on their website in the form of a PDF file.2 We have made this solvent selection guide more accessible in the form of a free app called Green Solvents.3, 4 It is delivered as a simple structure look-up guide incorporating all of the selection criteria from the ACS GCI and, in addition, having links out to other useful resources (ChemSpider 5-7 etc.). This app, like most free apps, has a small banner advertisement which does not detract from the content of the app or its usability on a mobile device. Importantly this App was not funded by the ACS or any other organization.

Screenshot of the Open Drug Discovery Teams App for iPad

Screenshot of the Open Drug Discovery Teams App for iPad

Creating the Green Solvents app has also motivated the addition of the process mass intensity (PMI) calculation8 (which is another green chemistry feature), into the Yield101 app9. A third recently developed mobile app connected to green chemistry is the Open Drug Discovery Teams (ODDT) app10, 11. ODDT is a free mobile app intended as a research topic aggregator of science data collected from various sources on the internet such as Twitter and Google Alerts. It exists to facilitate interdisciplinary teamwork and deliver access to information that is highly relevant and focused on the topic areas of interest. Research topics include areas of chemistry and adjacent molecule-oriented biomedical sciences, with an emphasis on those which are most amenable to open research at present. We have focused on green chemistry as a topic due to its potential importance for scientists involved in drug discovery for rare and neglected diseases. There is high attrition in drug discovery, so many compounds will need to be made but only a very small fraction will make it into the clinic and, far less, into the marketplace. It is therefore important to design a green process as early as possible when the cost is lower and the quantities of chemicals made are relatively small compared to when they are dramatically scaled up for manufacturing. We feel these global neglected and rare disease researchers would benefit greatly from being informed about green chemistry principles early on and that this has not been considered by any of the major organizations driving green chemistry initiatives. This app has also been used to visualize the ACS GCI solvent selection guide in a different format as it was Tweeted out to reach an even wider audience for those following the hashtag #greenchemistry. To date we are the only researchers that have created and used mobile apps to communicate green chemistry concepts. We feel this is an area that is ripe for expansion to further educate scientists.

Sean Ekins*
Collaborations in Chemistry, 5616 Hilltop Needmore Road, Fuquay-Varina, NC 27526, U.S.A.
Alex M. Clark
Molecular Materials Informatics, 1900 St. Jacques #302, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3J 2S1
Antony J. Williams
Royal Society of Chemistry, 904 Tamaras Circle, Wake Forest, NC 27587, U.S.A. 

1. American Chemical Society Green Chemistry InstituteTM Pharmaceutical Roundtable www.acs.org/gcipharmaroundtable
2. Solvent selection guide. http://surveys.acs.org/se.ashx?s=04BD76CC0E5496A7
3. Ekins, S. Green Solvents: From Idea to App in 3 Days. http://www.slideshare.net/ekinssean/green-solvents-app
4. Clark, A. M. Green Solvents. http://www.scimobileapps.com/index.php?title=Green_Solvents
5. ChemSpider. www.chemspider.com
6. Pence, H. E.; Williams, A. J. ChemSpider: An Online Chemical Information Resource. J Chem Educ 2010, 87, 1123-1124.
7. Williams, A. J. Public chemical compound databases. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 2008, 11, 393-404.
8. ACS GCI Pharmaceutical Roundtable. http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_TRANSITIONMAIN&node_id=1422&use_sec=false&sec_url_var=region1&__uuid=46aca9b6-a985-42cd-a534-7d6cabf892a7
9. Clark, A. M. Yield-101. http://www.scimobileapps.com/index.php?title=Yield101
10. Ekins, S.; Clark, A. M.; Williams, A. J. Open Drug Discovery Teams: A Chemistry Mobile App for Collaboration. Molecular Informatics 2012, In Press.
11. Philippidis, A. App connects rare disease researchers to data. http://www.genengnews.com/insight-and-intelligenceand153/app-connects-rare-disease-researchers-to-data/77899637/

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